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Biology Lecture 13 - Exam 3

by: Devin Mart

Biology Lecture 13 - Exam 3 BIO 121 A

Marketplace > Missouri State University > Biology > BIO 121 A > Biology Lecture 13 Exam 3
Devin Mart
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Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy
General Biology
Dr. Durham
Class Notes
Biology 120 - General Biology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devin Mart on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121 A at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Durham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 03/25/16
  Mart 1  Lecture 13: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy    ● Catabolic pathways are the set of metabolic pathways that break down molecules into  smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic  reactions.  ○ Fermentation ​ is the partial degradation of sugars in absence of oxygen.  ■ Glycolysis generates two ATP whether oxygen is present (​ aerobic​) or not  (anaerobic​.  ■ Alcohol fermentation​  consists of pyruvate being converted to ethanol.  ■ Lactic acid fermentation ​consists of pyruvate reduced directly by NADH  to form lactate.  ○ Cellular respiration uses oxygen as a reactant to complete breakdown of organic  molecules, this occurs in the mitochondria.  ○ Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are the three macromolecules used as fuel (in  that order).  ● ATP​ , adenosine triphosphate, is composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups that  supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic  hydrolysis especially to ADP.  ○ Phosphorylation ​ is the transfer of the terminal phosphate group from ATP to  another molecule.  ● Redox reactions ​include the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to  another.  ○ Oxidation ​ is the loss of electrons areduction is the addition of electrons (Oil  Rig).  ○ The ​ electron transport chainis a series of compounds that transfer electrons from  electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions, and couples this electron  transfer with the transfer of protons across a membrane.  ■ Electrons are passed by increasingly electronegative molecules in the  chain until they are caught by oxygen, the most electronegative.  ● Respiration occurs in three metabolic stages: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and oxidative  phosphorylation.  ○ Oxidative phosphorylation​  is the metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in  cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of  nutrients to reform ATP.  ■ Substrate­level phosphorylation ​generates some ATP that can be found in  glycolysis and Krebs cycle.  ○ In Krebs cycle each cycle produces one ATP by substrate­level phosphorylation,  three NADH, and one FADH₂  per acetyl CoA.  ○ The inner mitochondrial membrane couples electron transport to ATP synthesis.    Mart 2  ■ ATP synthase ​ is an important enzyme that creates the energy storage  molecule ATP. 


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