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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Garringer on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Bowling Green State University taught by Mary Hare in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Thinking Notes 102215 Alex the Parrot We have mental representations 0 Mental images 0 These are examples of analogical representations 0 capture actual characteristics of what they represent analogical representations they are like the thing they stand for 0 Have many of the properties of real pictures 0 The spatial characteristics of the scene or the object are represented in our visual image 0 Many of same brain regions are active during visual perception amp visual imagery o Symbolic representations stand for something but don t correspond to it 0 CAT 0 Concepts a mental category of things events or activities Whether they be mental or physical Propositions a statement relating a subject and a claim about that subject Expressed in terms of associative links among nodes in a mental network 0 When you think about a particular topic activation spreads from nodes representing this topic to other related nodes Semantic Priming Meyer amp Schvaneveldt 1971 Lexical decision task Evidence that associative relations in uence word recognition Judgment judgment the ability to make considered decisions or come to sensible conclusions based on the evidence or your experience These are often based of Heuristics Often effective but can lead to errors 0 Examples of Heuristics Estimating how frequent or likely an event is How often does it snow in NW Ohio 0 Book examples Experimental participants watched a video about a prison guard Some were told that he was chosen because he wasn t typical others weren t told that After the video they were asked about their views on the prison system No difference in answers Dual Process Theories Sometimes we use slower less risky strategies 0 System 1 fast ef cient but maybe risky Relies on intuition and is driven by associations 0 System 2 Slower and take more effort but are more accurate in the end Relies on reasoning driven by rules takes more effect 0 In the end our judgment is often accurate What about reasoning Thinking Notes 102215 Reasoning Trying to draw the implications of our beliefs If I think X what follows from that 0 Why is reasoning or deduction important Books example is of Debbie and math 0 This is also a way of testing your beliefs Con rmation Bias 0 Bias toward taking evidence more seriously if it con rms with what we already believe Book example Study on whether capital punishment acts as a deterrent to crime 0 Half of the evidence agreed with the participant s views the other half argued against that view The result The participants started with certain biases about the facts and judged the evidence accordingly Con rming evidence taken at face value Discon rming evidence reinterpreted as chance near wins etc Notes 102015 Phases of memory Acquisition Intentional learning persistent and purposeful energy applied to learning 0 Incidental learning lndirectadditionalunplanned learning within an informalformal learning situation 0 What s in your memory is not a copy Encoding memories into form that the brain can process is not like storing a copy It is a very complex and creative process Retrieval Recall vs Recognition Recall example playing a memory card game and remembering where the cards are 0 Recognition example remembering answers for a test Different types of memory 0 Working memory immediately available what we re thinking about right now has a limited capacity 0 Accessing of the working memory activates the perirhinal cortex 0 Working memory is not just storage it involves processing or quotworking onquot the information must be quotdeeply processed 0 Longterm memory Storage of everything that you know has a huge capacity and it isn t available as instantly as your working memory 0 Accessing of the long term memory happens in the hippocampus Recoding o Actively engaging with information that you want to remember Maintenance rehearsal doesn t get it into long term storage 0 Maintenance rehearsal memory rehearsal that is useful in maintaining information in short term memory or working memory Deep processing 0 Emphasizes meaning understanding helps you remember 0 Anything that connects new information to already learned material you ll remember better if it makes sense
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