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Biology Lecture 14 - Exam 3

by: Devin Mart

Biology Lecture 14 - Exam 3 BIO 121 A

Marketplace > Missouri State University > Biology > BIO 121 A > Biology Lecture 14 Exam 3
Devin Mart
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General Biology
Dr. Durham
Class Notes
Biology 120 - General Biology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devin Mart on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121 A at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Durham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 03/25/16
  Mart 1  Lecture 14: Photosynthesis    ● Plants and other autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere.  ○ Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use sunlight to synthesize foods,  this nourishes the living world directly and indirectly.  ○ Autotrophs ​ produce organic molecules from CO₂  and other inorganic raw  materials, these can be separated by the source of energy that drives their  metabolism.  ■ Polyautotrophs ​ use light as their energy source, ex. plants, algae.  ■ Chemoautotrophs ​ use energy from oxidizing inorganic substances,  including sulfur and ammonia, ex. Bacteria.  ○ Heterotrophs ​ live on organic compounds produced by other organisms, the  consumers of the biosphere.  ● Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis within a plant.  ○ Chlorophyll ​ is a green pigment responsible for the absorption of light to provide  energy for photosynthesis.  ○ Chloroplasts are mainly found in ​mesophyll cells.  ■ O₂  exits the cell while CO enters the leaf through tstomata​.  ● The primary pathway of photosynthesis is this reaction, CO₂  + 2H₂ O → CH₂ O + H₂ O +  O₂ .  ○ Light reactions ​convert solar energy to chemical energy.  ■ Energy captured from light by the chlorophyll drives the production of  ATP, through the process of photophosphorylation​, the source of energy  that is later used to drive the production of carbohydrates.  ○ The ​ Calvin cycle is the set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts  during photosynthesis, the cycle is light­independent because it takes place after  the energy has been captured from sunlight.  ■ The Calvin Cycle incorporates CO₂  into an organic molecule vicarbon  fixation ​ ○ The ​ action spectrum measures the change in photosynthetic activity as  wavelength varies, this is unique for each pigment.  ○ There are two possible routes for electron flow:  ■ Noncyclic electron flow ​ produces both ATP and NADPH.  ■ Cyclic electron flow ​is a process of biasing light reaction outputs so that  photophosphorylation is increased.  ○ Chloroplasts and mitochondria generate ATP by the same mechanism:  chemiosmosis​.  ● The Calvin cycle converts CO₂  to sugar.    Mart 2  ○ The use of ATP and NADPH allows the cycle to generate sugar,  glyceraldehyde­3­phosphate ​ (G3P).  ○ Rubisco ​ is an enzyme present in chloroplasts, involved in fixing carbon dioxide  during photosynthesis and in oxygenation of the resulting compound during  photorespiration., this is a key enzyme.  ■ C₃  plants is during the stage in photosynthesis in which the carbon is split  into a 3 carbon sugar, 3­phosphoglycerate.  ● Photorespiration ​ is a respiratory process in plants by which they  take up oxygen in the light and give out some CO₂ .  ■ C₄  plants is the stage in photosynthesis in which the CO₂ is fixed into a  four­carbon compound.  ● Mesophyll cells ​ incorporate CO₂  into organic molecules.  ● PEP carboxylase ​ fixes CO₂  efficiently.  ○ Crassulacean acid metabolism ​ (CAM) is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved  in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.  ■ In a plant using CAM, the stomata in the leaves remain shut during the  day to reduce evapotranspiration, but open at night to collect carbon  dioxide.  ● On a global scale, photosynthesis is the most important process to the welfare of life on  Earth.         


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