Week 3/21-3/25 Psy 120-020
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 120-020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Raquel Akillas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Socioemotional Development Erik H. Erikson Studied under Sigmund Freud’s daughter Life presents us with tasks/challenges Positive vs. Negative pole Favorable ratio - Greater pull toward the positive - Leads to the development of a life virtue/life lesson Epigenetic Principle - What happens in childhood affects your whole life - one stage affects the other stages Stages of Development Trust vs. Mistrust Trust - Care is predictable and consistent - Virtue of hope - Secure relationships - Perseverance Too Much: - Naïve - Gullible Mistrust - Care and attention not consistent Too much: - Withdrawal - Depression - Paranoia Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Autonomy - Independence - Child learns they can make things happen - Virtue of will - Pride and confidence Too much: - Impulsiveness Shame - Kid is punished harshly for accidents Doubt - Kid is over protected Too much: - Compulsiveness – need to check, recheck; everything must be done to perfection Initiative vs. Guilt Initiative - Kid is encouraged to voice their opinion and have ideas - Virtue of purpose - Self-starters, leaders Too much: - Ruthlessness- don’t care who they step on to get what they want Guilt - Kid is put down for their ideas - Critical parents Too much: - Inhibition- don’t put self out there afraid to have an opinion Industry vs. Inferiority Industry - Production - Kid is encouraged to produce/ create things - Virtue of competence - Feel able to perform tasks - Feel successful Too much: - Narrow virtuosity- kid not allowed to be a “child” - Child actors, athletes, musicians Inferiority - Kid told they cannot do things correctly Too much: - Inertia - Do nothing - Give up on sports, math, dating, hobbies - “if at first you don’t succeed, never try again” Identity vs. Confusion – peaks in adolescence Identity - Major, career, religion - Sexual orientation, personality - Synthesis of people you admire - Comes from exploration - Flexible - Secure - Virtue of fidelity - Faithful to your beliefs Too Much: - Fanaticism (extreme stand on a issue) Ex. Religion, politics Confusion - Not knowing who you are or what you want - Can be a good thing Too much: - Negative identity - Anger - Feel they can’t contribute to society - Turn to drugs, crimes, and gangs Intimacy vs. Isolation Intimacy - Feel you can emotionally open up to someone else - “Finding yourself, yet loosing yourself in another” - Virtue of love Isolation - Emotional withdrawal - Can be healthy to a point Too much: - Exclusion (isolate from all love, friendships, and community) - Promiscuity (too much disclosure too fast; person to person to person; can’t sustain the relationships) Generativity vs. Stagnation Generativity - Feeling of contribution to future generations - Passing ideas, religion, and skills - Virtue of contentment - Feels satisfied with your life Too much: - Over extension - Don’t relax - Have too much to give Stagnation - Feeling you did nothing with your life - Feeling stuck in a job, marriage, life role Too much: - Rejectivity - Stop caring about others - Bitterness towards life and others Integrity vs. Despair Integrity - Feeling satisfied with life - There’s an order to one’s life - See life mistakes as inevitable or a lesson - Virtue of wisdom Too much: - Presumption - Focus on things they did right not things they did wrong Despair - Feeling regret for what cannot be changed Too much: - Distain - Disgusted at every little thing - Negative view of life and death Parenting Styles – Diana Baumrind 4 styles based on 2 parents with same style parenting - Can be mixed approach Authoritarian Style - High demandingness - Low responsiveness - Require obedience without compromise - Focus on what child is doing wrong rather than right - Parent believes order is the best way to raise kids (tough love) Authoritative Style - High demandingness - High responsiveness - Negotiate and compromise rules - Parents still in charge - Encourage dialogue Indulgent Style - Low demandingness - High responsiveness - Kid runs house - Few clear expectations of child - Focus on giving child “unconditional” love and freedom - Parents compensate for their childhood, inattentive parents, need for love, burned out, money, drug/alcohol abuse Indifferent Style - Low demandingness - Low responsiveness - Uninvolved - Parents dealing with personal issue or drug/alcohol abuse - Lead to most emotional problems - Kid doesn’t feel they exist Family Conflicts Sibling Rivalry - “favorite child” debate - Competition in family - Possession - Parents approval - Significant place within the family - Superior Birth Order Theory - Sibling relationship more influential then child and parent - Most important-how you see yourself within your family constellation (group) Only Child - All adult attention - Rival of one parent - May be spoiled or overprotected - Center of attention - Prefers adult company Eldest Child - Did not like being dethroned - Think often of the past - Conservative - Achievement oriented - Need for power - Protector Middle Child - Rebel - Competitive - Need to prove themselves better than older child Youngest Child - Spoiled - Inferior to other siblings - May become dependent - Helpless so they stay the baby Twin - One stronger/more active than other - Parent sees one as older - Identity problems Ghost Child - Child is born after death of another child - Overprotected - May rebel - Needs own identity besides from child that passed - Can’t live up to idealized memory Adopted Child - Parents are so thankful for a child, may spoil - Child may resent or idealize biological parents Parent-Adolescent Conflict - Usually over mundane, surface issue Ex: curfew, dating chores - Underneath is a much more serious issue that are not talked about Ex: drugs, sex, feeling of rejection, or parent having personal issues - Minority of families experience high conflict Highest Conflict Parents who: - Have marital conflict - Use manipulation, guilt, and authoritarian parenting - Prohibit teen’s autonomy - Did not differentiate from their own parents - Feel teen is the one thing they can control in their life Low Conflict Parents: - Authoritative parents Conflict Perceptions - Teens who view conflicts as way of: Blowing off steam Individuating themselves Making a statement about their right to personal choices - Parents view conflicts as : Rejection of their lives “Losing child” Indication of their “failures” as a parent Tend to give more meaning to the conflict (overthink) Cycle of Mutual Distancing - Teens appears awkward and rejecting - Parents become frustrated and withdraw - Parents need to understand o Teen not rejecting them o Venting = displacement o Need to stay involved and find new ways to relate Teens and Divorce Parenting Styles Change - Initially, custodial parent is more authoritarian - Non-custodial parent is indulgent or indifferent Preoperational (birth-age 7) - More overt reactions Ex: temper tantrums, hitting, sucking thumb - Tend to blame themselves Concrete Operational (age 7-12) - Loyalty issues Formal Operational (age 12 and up) - Isolate themselves - Don’t want to talk about it Adjustment Factors Parental - Depressed/angry parent, results in kids having more problems - Allow kids to see and express emotion but keep adult issues with other adults - Don’t draw kids into fighting - Adults need to lean on other adults for emotional support or therapist Consistency - Easier if kid stays in same house and school - Hardest if happen during transitional period in child’s life Remarriage Reconstituted Families - Younger children – more accepting of step parent - Teens – more difficult time - Girls – hardest time accepting step parent