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Computer Architecture

by: Marian Kertzmann DVM

Computer Architecture CS 6810

Marian Kertzmann DVM
The U
GPA 3.78

Alan Davis

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Alan Davis
Class Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marian Kertzmann DVM on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CS 6810 at University of Utah taught by Alan Davis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/229976/cs-6810-university-of-utah in ComputerScienence at University of Utah.

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Date Created: 10/26/15
Lecture 14 Virtual Memory Today DRAM and Virtual memory basics Sections 5354 DRAM Access 1M DRAM 1024 X 1024 array of bits 10 row address bits arrive first gt Row Access Strobe RAS 1024 bits are read OUt Subset of bits returned to CPU gt 10 column address bits arrive next Column Access Strobe CAS DRAM Properties The RAS and CAS bits share the same pins on the chip Each bit loses its value after a while hence each bit has to be refreshed periodically this is done by reading each row and writing the value back hence dynamic random access memory causes variability in memory access time Dual lnline Memory Modules DIMMs contain 416 DRAM chips and usually feed eight bytes to the processor Technology Trends Improvements in technology smaller devices 9 DRAM capacities double every two years Time to read data out of the array improves by only 5 every year 9 high memory latency the memory wall Time to read data out of the column decoder improves by 10 every year 9 influences bandwidth Increasing Bandwidth The column decoder has access to many bits of data many sequential bits can be fonNarded to the CPU without additional row accesses fast page mode Each word is sent asynchronously to the CPU every transfer entails overhead to synchronize with the controller by introducing a clock more than one word can be sent without increasing the overhead synchronous DRAM Increasing Bandwidth By increasing the memory width number of memory chips and the connecting bus more bytes can be transferred together increases cost Interleaved memory since the memory is composed of many chips multiple operations can happen at the same time a single address is fed to multiple chips allowing us to read sequential words in parallel Virtual Memory Processes deal with virtual memory they have the illusion that a very large address space is available to them There is only a limited amount of physical memory that is shared by all processes a process places part of its virtual memory in this physical memory and the rest is stored on disk Thanks to locality disk access is likely to be uncommon The hardware ensures that one process cannot access the memory of a different process 7 Address Translation The virtual and physical memory are broken up into pages 8KB page size 13 virtual page page offset 7 number Translated to physical page number Physical address Memory Hierarchy Properties Avirtual memory page can be placed anywhere in physical memory fullyassociative Replacement is usually LRU since the miss penalty is huge we can invest some effort to minimize misses A page table indexed by virtual page number is used for translating virtual to physical page number The memorydisk hierarchy can be either inclusive or exclusive and the write policy is writeback TLB Since the number of pages is very high the page table capacity is too large to fit on chip Atranslation lookaside buffer TLB caches the virtual to physical page number translation for recent accesses ATLB miss requires us to access the page table which may not even be found in the cache two expensive memory lookups to access one word of data A large page size can increase the coverage of the TLB and reduce the capacity of the page table but also increases memory wastage TLB and Cache Is the cache indexed with virtual or physical address gt To index with a physical address we will have to first look up the TLB then the cache 9 longer access time gt Multiple virtual addresses can map to the same physical address can we ensure that these different virtual addresses will map to the same location in cache Else there will be two different copies of the same physical memory word Does the tag array store virtual or physical addresses gt Since multiple virtual addresses can map to the same physical address a virtual tag comparison can flag a miss even if the correct physical memory word is present 11 Virtually Indexed Caches 24bit virtual address 4KB page size 9 12 bits offset and 12 bits virtual page number To handle the example below the cache must be designed to use only 12 index bits for example make the 64KB cache 16way Page coloring can ensure that some bits of virtual and physical address match abcdef abbdef Virtually indexed cache lt cdef lt bdef Data cache that needs 16 index bits 64KB directmapped or 128KB 2way 12 Cache and TLB Pipeline Virtual address Virtual 39 indexv Offset Virtual page number Physical page number Physical tag Physical tag comparion Virtually Indexed Physically Tagged Cache Superpages If a program s working set size is 16 MB and page size is 8KB there are 2K frequently accessed pages a 128 entry TLB will not suffice By increasing page size to 128KB TLB misses will be eliminated disadvantage memory wastage increase in page fault penalty Can we change page size at runtime Note that a single page has to be contiguous in physical memory Superpages Implementation oAt runtime build superpages if you find that contiguous virtual pages are being accessed at the same time For example virtual pages 6479 may be frequently accessed coalesce these pages into a single superpage of size 128KB that has a single entry in the TLB The physical superpage has to be in contiguous physical memory the 16 physical pages have to be moved so they are contiguous virtual physical virtual physical Ski Rental Problem Promoting a series of contiguous virtual pages into a superpage reduces TLB misses but has a cost copying physical memory into contiguous locations Page usage statistics can determine if pages are good candidates for superpage promotion but if cost of a TLB miss is X and cost of copying pages is NX when do you decide to form a superpage If ski rentals cost 20 and new skis cost 200 when do I decide to buy new skis gt lfl rent 10 times and then buy skis I m guaranteed to not spend more than twice the optimal amount 16 Protection The hardware and operating system must cooperate to ensure that different processes do not modify each other s memory The hardware provides special registers that can be read in user mode but only modified by instrs in supervisor mode A simple solution the physical memory is divided between processes in contiguous chunks by the OS and the bounds are stored in special registers the hardware checks every program access to ensure it is within bounds Protection with Virtual Memory Virtual memory allows protection without the requirement that pages be preallocated in contiguous chunks Physical pages are allocated based on program needs and physical pages belonging to different processes may be adjacent efficient use of memory Each page has certain readwrite properties for userkernel that is checked on every access gt a program s executable can not be modified gt part of kernel data cannot be modifiedread by user gt page tables can be modified by kernel and read by user 18 Title Bullet


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