Chapter 11 Textbook Notes
Chapter 11 Textbook Notes HIST 145
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Chapter 1 1 J acksonian Democracy 1 820 1840 Pages 305 331 American Portrait Harriet Noble p 305 Lived in NY 1824 News spread of the opportunities to move out west in the Michigan Territory Harriet s husband went w his brother to scout out land He and his brother s family moved Wagon rides over bad roads to Buffalo 4day wait for a steamship that never arrived 7day trip across Lake Erie gt seasickness Days of walking through the wilderness gt painfully swollen feet Arrived Ann Arbor Only 7 log huts During the night it was so crowded you couldn t turn over or get up Winters gt illnesses Moved 10 miles away to Dexter Husband traveled 15 days to get to and back from Detroit to get our Ran out and couldn t make bread for days Husband s hand blown off in a gun accident Harriet had to do all of the house and field work Husband went to get his nephew to help out Andrew Jackson believed that this type of Americans were worth protecting and was why he fought in the Revolutionary War because they were willing to take great risks for opportunities Common People and the Political Economy of Democracy p 307 Settlers New States Maine 1820 Missouri 1821 Arkansas 1835 a 14year gap Migration set off by the Treaty of Ghent 1815 Land Act of 1820 125 per acre w a minimum purchase of 80 acres Congress eliminated the 1800 provision that allowed settlers to buy on credit Land that wasn t paid for right away went back up for sail The Political Economy of Free Labor Wage workers worried that they were becoming dependent on the rich Some Causes of Popular Poverty Cornelius Blatchly Quaker NJ 1817 Property owners were tyrants stealing money that laborers deserved Panic of 1819 gt Organized protests Strikes 0 In major cities O Protested poor pay 0 Long hours inhibited a chance to regrouprefresh time w family time to obtain an education Labor Unions 0 Mechanics Union PA 1827 O Protested the exhaustion that industrialization caused Suffrage Reform Suffrage was restricted by Gender Race Property ownership Tax payment Urban craft workers Owned very little Demanded the right to vote based on a Military service b Loyalty c Economic importance Settlers Owned even less that craft workers Demanded the right to vote based on a They being the embodiment of the Republican spirit New states and voting rights Vermont state 14 universal white male suffrage New Hampshire dropped all qualifications gt universal white male suffrage Kentucky universal white male suffrage Tennessee required the ownership of property but no minimum amount needed Ohio universal white male suffrage Next 6 new states universal white male suffrage Old states and voting rights Connecticut first to drop all qualifications By 1824 only VA LA and RI kept restrictions on white males being able to vote NY MD PA CT and NJ took away The African American s right to vote The single woman property owner s right to vote Opposition to Special Privilege and Secret Societies Masons The Masonic movement originated to counter aristocratic power and protect craft masons Order of Freemasons urban businessmen professionals politicians who pledged to support one another Held an antidemocratic spirit William Morgan NY wrote on the order s secret designs for political power and mysteriously disappeared believed to have been killed Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay were Masons The Antimason Party Won elections in MA PA and VT William Wirt MD selected as candidate Jackson and the National Republicans p 311 Both Jefferson and Madison shifted from strict interpretation of the constitution to loose Madison who hated Hamilton s national bank let it expire in 1811 The War of 1812 taught him how important it was to have national funds gt Reestablished the bank on the same terms as their first Changes in the Democratic Republican Party National Republicans Better transportation Stronger federal military Activist national government to prevent localism fragmentation Leaders 0 Henry Clay KY I Advocated better transportation out west 0 John C Calhoun SC I Representative then senator then vice president 0 Daniel Webster MA I Supported protective tariffs 0 John Quincy Adams MA I Son of president Adams I Senator I Left Federalist party when they opposed the Louisiana Purchase American System 0 Appeal to local interests in each region north south and west Contributed to Madison signing the Second Bank of the United States into existence 1816 chartered for 20 years located in PA Contributed to Madison asking Congress to clarify federal power concerning transportation gt a section of the National Road opened from Baltimore to future West Virginia James Monroe and National Republicanism 1816 James Monroe becomes the 5th president 4th president from VA More aggressive foreign policy toward Europe Stronger national defense Federally subsidized internal improvements roads canals gt regions more dependent on one another Asked former Federalist John Quincy Adams to be secretary of state 1817 limit British and American forces on the Great Lakes 18 1 8 Extended 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains Formally acknowledged American fishing rights off the Newfoundland coasts Jackson s troops authorized to raid FL to frighten the Seminoles who had been attacking GA and SC Jackson exceeds this permission and destroys Seminole settlements captures a Spanish Fort and kills two British citizens for supporting Indian resistance 18 19 Fixed definite borders to the Louisiana Purchase Transcontinental Treaty a Spain gives all of Florida to US b Clarified border bw US and Mexico c US gives up California and Texas 1820s US feels like America defending both Americas from European forces Argentina Venezuela and Chile revolted Mexico independence movement New republics turned to the US for recognition and support 0 Brittan offers to partner w US to resist other nations from interfering w the Western Hemisphere 0 John Quincy Adams warned against it saying that the US should independently support the new republics 1832 Monroe Doctrine Surveillance over the nations of North and South America would be the domestic right of the United States America and the World The Monroe Doctrine p 314 The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers The Election of 1824 and the Corrupt Bargain Republican Party Calhoun Secretary of war Clay speaker of the House Crawford secretary of the treasury Andrew Jackson Orphan of settlers Studied law in NC practiced it in future state of TN represented settlers w disputed land claims TN s first representative in congress Senator later resigned Justice on TN Supreme Court Hero of Battle of New Orleans Controversial attack against Seminoles was successful Governor of FL territory Nominated for president in 1822 Adams won the 6th presidential slot Jackson claims that Adam bought Clay s support by offering him the position of secretary of state called it the Corrupt Bargain The Adams Presidency and the Gathering Forces of Democracy Adams and Clay worked well together committed to the American System Vision National university National observatory Naval academy Elaborate system of roads canals federally funded Opponents believed this Benefited the wealthy at the expense of the common people Republican party seemed more Federalist than J effersonian 1816 tariff was protectionist Supported by western and middle states Opposed by the south Split opinions in New England 1824 tariff Taxed 35 on imported cotton wool hemp and iron Vehemently opposed in the south North and federalist government did not need the tax Difference between Jackson and Adams was the question of in what ways could the federal government assert its authority over Americans The Election of 1828 Accused Jackson of marrying a woman before her divorce was final Adams accused of being a Sabbath breaker closet federalist hypocrite and disdainer of popular government Democratic Campaign national campaign coordinated by Martin Van Buren Used celebrations like the 4th of July to rally Jackson supporters Used Jackson s nickname Old Hickory and handed out hickory canes at events Beefed up his common man background Jackson became the 7th president over Adams winning the south west and PA NY and ME Favored J effersonian politics limited central government no concentrations of political and economic power individual rights especially out west A Policy of Removing Indigenous People p 320 Jackson and Native Peoples Jackson believed that the quintessential common man was the western settler and that Indians stood in their way Indians butcher our citizens and Congress should punish the barbarians The only harm Indians actually did was occupy lands that treaties with the federal government said belonged to them as if this was a crime Georgia s 1802 agreement a GA would cede western claims to federal government b Federal government would remove Indians from GA Federal government did not keep its promise Jackson s election inspired Georgia to attack the Cherokee Indians When gold was discovered more people from GA went into Cherokee lands Jackson told the Cherokees that it was his job to protect the state s rights Supreme Court ruled GA s actions as unconstitutional Van Buren formed the Board for the Emigration Preservation and Improvement of the Aborigines of America offering to remove the Indians Supported by former president John Quincy Adams The Removal Act 1830 Provided an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any state or territory and ordered them to move west of the Mississippi River 1830 1832 Choctaws Chickasaws and Creeks forced from Mississippi to present day Oklahoma 1836 Treaty of New Echota in 2 years the Cherokees would leave for Indian Territory and be granted safe passage 5 million and food shelter equipment and medicine for a year after they settle The majority stayed gt Forced to leave Trail of Tears many died from disease malnutrition dehydration and exhaustion 18311832 Sauk and Fox heard that whites were unearthing their dead they crossed the Mississippi to rebury them and also harvest what was left on their fields gt Black Hawks War state militia killed the Indian army 18321842 Seminoles resisted the federal troops that came to remove them a war lasted for 7 years American Landscape Liberty and the Land Cherokee Removal p 323 Cherokee lived in the southern Appalachian Mountains Corn and deer Primary food Way to ritualize marriages Green Corn Festival Council hall allowed the whole community to make decisions based on consensus White practices Dependent on farming Adopted a written alphabet Indian Removal Act 1830 1838 US army arrives to forcefully remove the Cherokee Unprepared to move no food or belongings prepared First wave Travelled during the hottest part of the summer Many died of disease exhaustion and dehydration Second wave Some of the Cherokee requested to delay their removal They had wagons to carry the elderly or sick Those walking carried goods in blankets on their backs Faced winds and ice storms of winter 0 Indian Territory was drier and atter than what they were use to in the mountains History Destiny and the Disappearing Indian 0 Manifest Destiny belief that whites were the natural heirs to the land because they were the most suited for it and could take advantage of all the land had to offer The Bank War p 327 Jackson s Opposition to the National Bank 0 Reasons Controlled by wealthy easterners and foreign investors Suspicious of counterfeit banknotes Accused of buying votes for Adams in 1828 0 Nicholas Biddle Bank s president Asked Congress to take up the renewal of the bank earlier 1832 Jackson vetoed it Republicans angered because the Supreme Court ruled the bank as constitutional and Congress had agreed to renew it Democrats happy because the veto was an action against the corrupt aristocracy Dismembering the Bank 0 Jackson was reelected in 1832 0 Jackson asks Secretary of Treasury McLane to chose other banks that the federal government could place its money into McLane afraid that the state banks were not mature enough to handle that amount of money Jackson replaces McLane with Duane Jackson then replaces Duane with Taney 0 The federal government deposited its money into 22 state banks The money was used to make loans to individuals and corporations throughout the US 0 National Bank begins calling in loans and foreclosing on debts gt took 15 million out of the US economy 0 Congress furiously claims that Jackson assumed authority above the other two branches of government and took actions that were not constitutional Jackson states that he is the sole representative for the American people seeing that he was the first president directly voted for by the people The Specie Act 0 1833 Jackson announced that the National Bank would no longer accept drafts reduced the value of bank notes 0 1834 Jackson announced that the state banks could not issue drafts for amounts under 5 later 20 reduced the circulation of small value paper currency 1836 Specie Circular land offices could only accept coins or metals for payment of western lands 1836 Deposit Act now 100 state banks held federal funds adding 5 million to the already 22 million dispersed to them The Growth of Sectional Tension p 329 The Political Economy of Southern Discontent 1820 Illinois proslavery advocates since blacks were held as indentured servants unable to elect a proslavery congressman 1824 Ohio asks Congress for the gradual abolition of slavery across the US July 4 1827 NY completes it long process of gradual emancipation 1828 cotton prices dropped 23 1816 protective tariff raised prices on European imports forcing southerners to purchase the expensive northernmade products benefiting the north but not the south SC s white population was outnumbered due to many moving out west South Carolina s Protest 1828 Tariff Tariff of Abominations John C Calhoun wrote South Carolina Exposition and Protest anonymously stating that SC had the right as a state to declared the Tariff as null and void States are distinct political communities that can protect themselves if threatened by the federal government The states existed before the federal government and therefore had given up some of their individual authority but not all The Nullification Crisis Senator Daniel Webster argued that SC was a hotbed of disloyalty The American people created the federal government for the people Tariff of 1832 lowered the 1828 Tariff SC still sees this as favoring the north since the Tariff wasn t abolished 1831 African American Nat Turner led a rebellion in VA killed 57 whites Freed slaves Was quickly shut down but the fact that it actually happened caused concern 1832 SC votes to nullify both Tariffs 1833 Force Bill a statement that Jackson could tax SC by the constitution SC votes to nullify the Force Bill but Jackson lets that slide Conclusion p 331 Jackson s celebrated Democracy was faced with continuous con ict African Americans and Natives were excluded altogether Although he embodied the American western planter he gained opposition from SC urban workers and those calling for the abolishment of slavery