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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailee Buchs on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Learning 0 A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experiences w our environment 0 Three general types Classical conditioning Most people have a fear response just sitting in a dentist39s chair Why 0 We associate the chair with pain 0 Ivan Pavlov rst outline this type of learning through his experiments with dogs 1927 Occurs in humans too 0 One study using humans a puff of air was delivered to the eyes 0 Three important variables 0 The magnitude of UCS The UCS must be sufficiently strong to elicit the UCR o Contiguity timing between receiving NS and UCS For optimal learning the NS should occur about 12 or 05 seconds before the UCS o The number of times the NS has been paired with the UCS The more time the NS and the UCS are paired during learning the longer the learning will last 0 Four important properties 0 Extinction o Spontaneous recovery 0 Stimulus generalization o Stimulus discrimination Operant conditioning instrumental learning 0 Learning process in which probability that an organism will emit a response is increased by the subsequent delivery of a reinforce o Reinforcement is delivered after a response has occurred 0 This should increase the chances that the response or behavior will occur again 0 Behavior occurs gt reinforcement delivered 0 Press bar gt get foodstop shock Two lines of research on operant conditioning o Shaping o Superstitious behavior Reinforcement both types increase the probability that a behavior will occur again 0 Positive Presenting of a rewarding or pleasant stimulus after a behavior has occurred 0 Negative The removal of negative or unpleasant stimulus after a behavior 0 Punishment has occurred Get something good Reinforcement is the termination of a painful stimulus Take away something bad Children often learn that if they 39overcry39 at the start of a spanking mom or dad will stop the spanking Decreases probability that certain behavior will occur again Certain behavior leads to something bad Primary Punishment with stimuli that naturally cause pain 0 0 Secondary Punishment with stimuli that are associated with pain 0 Spanking child Shocking rat Don39t actually cause physical pain Frown Cold stare Saying quotnoquot loudly Common type is the removal of a pleasant stimulus O 0 Getting traf c ticket Being grounded 0 Time out This is not a negative reinforcement ls punishment effective It suppresses simple behavior patterns for the short term Punishment has 2 major drawbacks that should be considered 0 0 When punisher is absent original behaviors often return quickly Punishment can only be used to suppress behavior Only allows on to eliminate old behaviors not teach new ones 0 Research shows that punishment can be effective only under 2 conditions Only 2ndary punishment should be used Positive reinforcement should always be used along with the secondary punishment Combination of secondary punishment and positive reinforcement can be very effective in shaping behavior Why shouldn39t we use primary punishment 80 of US adults agree that its ok to spank a child under certain circumstances Research shows very clearly that it39s not ok Children imitate parental aggression People who use physical punishment with their kids 0 End up with children who will use physical aggression when they are parents 0 Had parents who used physical aggression with them