Chapter 6 - Blocks of Life?
Chapter 6 - Blocks of Life? A104
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Chapter 6 Blocks Of Life Modern Interpretation of the Cell Theory 1 All known living things are made up of one or more cells 2 All living cells arise from preexisting cells by division 3 The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms 4 The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of independent cells 5 Energy ow metabolism and biochemistry occurs within cells 6 Cells contain DNA which is found speci cally in the chromosome and RNA found in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm 7 All cells are basically the same in chemical composition in organisms of similar species Cells 1 Eukaryotic Cells 0 Can be subdivided into unicellular single celled or multicellular organisms For examples Plants Animals Protista Fungi Algae Molds Protozoa STRUCT FUNCTIONS URE CELL outer lining of the cell MEMBRA NE selectively permeable maintains homeostasis support amp protection separates the cell from its environment allows materials to enter and leave the cell A double layer of phospholipids lipid bilayer The exposed heads of the bilayer are quothydrophilicquot water loving meaning that they are compatible with water both within the cytosol and outside of the cell However the hidden tails of the phospholipids are quothydrophobicquot water fearing so the cell membrane acts as a protective barrier to the uncontrolled ow of water The membrane is made more complex by the presence of numerous proteins that are crucial to cell activity These proteins include receptors for odors tastes and hormones as well as pores responsible for the controlled entry and exit of ions like sodium Na potassium K calcium Ca CENTROS OME CENTRIO LE CYTO PLA 5 M CYTOSOL ENDOPLA and chloride Cl MICROTUBULE ORGANIZING CENTER MTOC an area in the cell where microtubules are produced Plant and animal cell centrosomes play similar roles in cell division both include collections of microtubules but the plant cell centrosome is simpler and does not have centrioles During animal cell division the centrioles replicate make new copies and the centrosome divides The result is two centrosomes each with its own pair of centrioles The two centrosomes move to opposite ends of the nucleus and from each centrosome microtubules grow into a quotspindlequot which is responsible for separating replicated chromosomes into the two daughter cells only in animal cells Each centriole is a ring of nine groups of fused microtubules There are three microtubules in each group Microtubules and centrioles are part of the cytoskeleton In the complete animal cell centrosome the two centrioles are arranged such that one is perpendicular to the other clear amp thick made up of a jellylike uid called the cytosol and other structures that surround the nucleus supports or protects cell organelles the quotsoupquot within which all the other cell organelles reside where most of the cellular metabolism occurs mostly water full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways glycolysis intracellular receptors and transcription factors network of tubes or membranes SMIC RETICUL UM SMOOTH amp ROUGH SMOOTH ENDOPLA SMIC RETICUL UM ROUGH ENDOPLA SMIC RETICUL UM GOLGI BODYGO LGI APPARAT US SECRETO RY VESICLE RIBOSOM E process molecules created by the cell transports these molecules to their speci c destinations either inside or outside the cell a continuation of the outer nuclear membrane and its varied functions suggest the complexity of the eukaryotic cell appears smooth by electron microscopy plays different functions depending on the speci c cell type including lipid and steroid hormone synthesis breakdown of lipidsoluble toxins in liver cells and control of calcium release in muscle cell contraction appears quotpebbledquot by electron microscopy due to the presence of numerous ribosomes on its surface Proteins synthesized on these ribosomes collect in the endoplasmic reticulum for transport throughout the cell with a single membrane A stack of membranebound vesicles that are important in packaging macromolecules for transport elsewhere in the cell The stack of larger vesicles is surrounded by numerous smaller vesicles containing those packaged macromolecules The enzymatic or hormonal contents of lysosomes peroxisomes and secretory vesicles are packaged in membrane bound vesicles at the periphery of the Golgi apparatus packages molecules which processed by the endoplasmic reticulum to be transported out of the cell Cell secretions eg hormones neurotransmitters are packaged in secretory vesicles at the Golgi apparatus are then transported to the cell surface for release Small bodies free or attached to ER cell39s genetic instructions to create proteins are packets of RNA and protein that play a crucial role in both prokaryotic LYSOSOM E PEROXIS OMES MITOCHO NDRION and eukaryotic cells quotEach ribosome comprises two parts a large subunit and a small subunit Messenger RNA from the cell nucleus is moved systematically along the ribosome where transfer RNA adds individual amino acid molecules to the lengthening protein chain mainly in animal cells small round and with a membrane contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion Hydrolytic enzymes of plant cells are more often found in the vacuole recycling center of the cell break down larger food molecules into smaller molecules digest foreign bacteria that invade the cell rid the cell of toxic substances recycle wornout cell components membranebound packets of oxidative enzymes ln plant cells peroxisomes play a variety of roles including converting fatty acids to sugar and assisting chloroplasts in photorespiration In animal cells peroxisomes protect the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide As an example white blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria The oxidative enzymes in peroxisomes break down the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen beanshaped with inner membranes have a double membrane about the size of bacteria but may have different shapes depending on the cell type are the power centers of the cell convert energy from food into a form that the cell can use break down sugar molecules into energy have their own genetic material separate from the DNA in the nucleus can make copies of themselves VACUOLE S NUCLEUS The outer membrane is fairly smooth But the inner membrane is highly convoluted forming folds cristae when viewed in crosssection The cristae greatly increase the inner membrane39s surface area It is on these cristae that food sugar is combined with oxygen to produce ATP the primary energy source for the cell large amp few in plant cells small in animal cells uid lled sacs store food water and waste plant need to store large amounts of food storing nutrients and waste products helping increase cell size during growth and even acting much like ysosomes of animal cells The plant cell vacuole also regulates turgor pressure in the cell Water collects in cell vacuoles pressing outward against the cell wall and producing rigidity in the plant Without sufficient water turgor pressure drops and the plant wilts large amp oval with a double membrane communicates with the surrounding cytosol via numerous nuclear pores Within each nucleus is nuclear chromatin that contains the organism39s genome cell39s command center sending directions to the cell to grow mature divide or die houses DNA deoxyribonucleic acid cell39s hereditary material surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope which protects the DNA and separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell The chromatin is ef ciently packaged within the small nuclear space Genes within the chromatin are made of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA The DNA stores the organism39s entire encoded genetic information The DNA is similar in every cell of the body but depending on the speci c cell type NUCLEOL US NUCLEAR MEMBRA NE CYTOS KE LETON CELL WALL CHLOROP some genes may be turned on or off that39s why a liver cell is different from a muscle cell and a muscle cell is different from a fat cell When a cell is dividing the nuclear chromatin DNA and surrounding protein condenses into chromosomes that are easily seen by microscopy prominent structure in the nucleus produces ribosomes which move out of the nucleus and take positions on the rough endoplasmic reticulum where they are critical in protein synthesis surrounds nucleus selectively permeable controls movement of materials in or out of nucleus a network of long bers that make up the cell39s structural framework determining cell shape participating in cell division allowing cells to move provides a tracklike system that directs the movement of organelles and other substances within cells cell motility The internal movement of cell organelles as well as cell locomotion and muscle ber contraction could not take place without the cytoskeleton is an organized network of three primary protein laments Microtubules actin laments micro laments intermediate bers located at outer layer of plant cell rigid strong stiff have a rigid protective cell wall made up of polysaccharides made of cellulose support grow tall amp protection allows H20 02 C02 to pass into and out of cell provides and maintains the shape of these cells and serves as a protective bar er Fluid collects in the plant cell vacuole and pushes out against the cell wall only in plant cells LAST green and oval usually containing chlorophyll green pigment uses energy from sun to make food for the plant photosynthesis These organelles contain the plant cell39s chlorophyll responsible for the plant39s green color and the ability to absorb energy from sunlight This energy is used to convert water plus atmospheric carbon dioxide into metabolizable sugars by the biochemical process of photosynthesis Chloroplasts have a double outer membrane Within the stroma are other membrane structures the thylakoids Thylakoids appear in stacks called quotgranaquot singular granum Animal Cells g quotquotquotquotquotquotquot 39 Ef e 5 Eti ij Tori in In nial E llil quotquotquotquot quot r I EmanSa lan M a Elam can Gallium 39 H G i39w lll Hlb s r39l i quot V 39 a mlgl new 1 Prokaryotic Cells 0 Lack wellde ned nuclei and membranebound organelles Single or circular chromosome only 0 For examples Bacteria Archaea STRUETURE FUHETIDHE EyteeleemieiF leeme 3 y 7 y I 1 n Membrama Reguletleh ef eeeeege ef metehele Irite arid eut f the eell Eeli Well Fir39eteetieh end meihtehehee e39t39eell ehepe Fennel in eerne beeteriel eelle thie eElElitienal euter tethering ereteete Cepeule the cell when it ie engulfed by ether ergehiem eeeiete iri reteihirlg meieture end helpe the eel adhere te eurlieeee end hut ehtel Neeleeid Centeine meet f the heretliterjlr meterlei Elite ef the reeli Flegeilurn Eiliumt Pretrielee metilite priiirietlliglr fer elhgleeelieel efgenleme Where eh lrgerIiem hee mere then 2 flagella eeeh is then knewh ere e eilium lH Jeirmiiite etrueturee en the eurl39eee ef the eel thet etteeh te ether Ftili heetearel eeie Eh l 39t ef pili eeiled firnbriee help beeteirie etteIGh te eurieeeet libeeeme Site elf ereteih EW39IHE E l The geHilte euhetehee in the eell fees te 913 teeter where meet Eytepeem EelliullEr fee etielnfe eeeur temperunlita Cg ll w39glll 39 Piaennui membrane 39 Belemtell Fleue um 39 N39hntlll l ili licvli39 Lilia lI39JNAI Main Differences Between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Eukaryotes have a nucleus wrapped in a nuclear membrane while prokaryotes do not Practice Questions 1 Which statements are true of Cell Theory There can be more than one answer a b c d All known living things are made up of one or more cells The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms Energy ow metabolism and biochemistryoccurs within cells The activity of an organism does not depend on the total activity of independentceHs 2 Regarding the classi cation of cells identify which of the option below is not part of the classi cation a b c d Euka ryotic Proka ryotic Archaea Viruses 2 Which of the following statements about the cell membrane is incorrect a b Both plant and animal cells have cell membrane The cell membrane acts as a barrier to allow selective materials to pass through The cell membrane is made of cellulose The cell membrane contains lipids 2 Fill in the blanks Animal Plant Cell Cell e C membrane hloroplasts C ochond a M 1 Describe and explain the function of cytoplasm in a cell 2 Is these true Cell Theory Is this true for animals for plants Elaborate where where appropriate appropriat e Is this true Elaborate Is this true for prokaryote s eg bacteria Elaborate where appropriat e All known living things are made up of one or more cells All living cells arise from preexisting cells by division The ceHisthe fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of independent cells 1 Ene rgy ow metabolism and biochemistry occurs within cells 1 Cell 5 contain DNA which is found speci cally in the chromosome and RNA found in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm 1 All cells are basically the same in chemical composition in organisms of similar species Learning Outcomes What are cells both prokaryotic and eukaryotic What is the Cell Theory and how it helps us understand what makes up living things The basic structures and functions of the organelles in cells Such as the cell membrane nucleus mitochondria cytoplasm Differences between eukaryotic plant and animal and prokaryotic cells Applications of such knowledge to the science of bioengineering and stem cell research Need answers Feel free to drop me an email 15043445 myrpedusg