Topic 9: Development
Topic 9: Development PSYCH 202
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adnaan Beg on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Jeffery B Henriques in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Professor Henriques Psychology 202 University of Wisconsin I Prenatality A Womb With a View a Prenatal Development i Zygote fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg ii A zygote has one thing in common with the person gender iii Y chromosome male X chromosome female iv Prenatal period the time from conception to birth V Germinal stage the 2 week period that begins at conception vi Embryonic stage period that lasts from the second week until about the 8th week vii Fetal stage a period that lasts from the 9th week until birth The embryo at this stage is known as a fetus viii Myelination the formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron Occurs during the fetal stage ix Newborn human s brain is only 25 of its adult size 75 of the brain development occurs outside the womb b Prenatal Environment iThe womb is an environment that in uences development in a multitude of ways ii Placenta the organ the physically links the bloodstreams of the mother and the developing embryo or fetus and permits the exchange of materials iii Insufficient nutrition during pregnancy tend to have both physical and psychological problems that leads to an increase risk of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder iv Teratogens agents that damage the process of development 1 Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy short eye openings a at midface a at ridge under the nose a thin upper lip underdeveloped jaw 2 Tobacco lower birth weights perceptual and attention problems in childhood 3 Caffeine 4 Stress 5 Poverty 11 Infancy and Childhood Becoming a Person a Perceptual and Motor Develovment iInfancy the stage of development that beings at birth and lasts bw 18 and 24 months Motor development the emergence of the ability to execute physical action 1 Sit at 55 months 2 Crawl at 10 months 3 Walk at 12 months Professor Henriques Psychology 202 University of Wisconsin Re exes specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation ivCephalocaudal rule the tendency for motor skills to merger in sequence from the head to the feet vProximodistal rule the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery b C02m39tive Develovment iThe emergence of the ability to think and understand Schemas mental representations of the world Assimilation fitting new information into existing schemas ivAccommodation modifying existing schemas to fit new information v Theory of mind the idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations 6 Piaget s Stages ofDeveZODment iSensorimotor Stage 1 A stage of development that beings at birth and lasts through infancy 2 Object permanence objects exist when out of view 3 Separation anxiety Preoperational Stage 1 The stage of development that begins at about age 2 and ends at age 6 children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world 2Conservation preoperational child does not understand 3Egocentrism failure to understand the world appears differently to different observers Concrete Operational Stage 1 Begins when child understands conservation 2 Think like adults except cannot think abstractly ivFormal Operations Stage 1 Children can solve nonphysical problems reason systematically about abstract concepts such as liberty and love d Social Develonment iAttachment an emotional bond with a primary caregiver 1 Secure If the caregiver leaves then returns infants who had been distressed by her absence go to her and are calmed by her proximity while those who had not been distressed acknowledge her return with a glance or greeting 2Avoidant These infants are generally not distressed when their caregiver leaves the room and they generally do not acknowledge her when she returns Professor Henriques Psychology 202 University of Wisconsin 3Ambivalent These infants are almost always distressed when their caregiver leaves the room but when she returns they rebuff her attempt to calm them arching their backs and squirming to get away 4 Disorganized These infants show no consistent pattern of responses when their caregiver leaves or returns Highly involved fathers result in increased social and cognitive competence Internal working model of relationships set of beliefs about the self the primary caregiver and the relationship bw them ivTemperaments characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity e Moral Development iKohlberg 3 Stages of Development 1 Preconventional stage morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor 2 Conventional Stage morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules 3 Postconventional Stage morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that re ect core values 111 Adolescence Minding the Gap a The Protraction 0f Adolescence iAdolescence begins with the onset of sexual maturity about 11 years to 14 years of age and lasts until the beginning of adulthood ii Puberty bodily changes associated with sexual maturity iii Primary sex characteristics bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that ARE directly involved in reproduction iv Secondary sex characteristics bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are NOT directly involved in reproduction b Sexualizx 139 Genes and biology play an important role in determining sexual orientation 6 Adulthood begins around age 18 and ends at death Professor Henriques Psychology 202 University of Wisconsin 0 What is development 0 Biological physical nature 0 Cognitive thought intelligence and language 0 Socioemotional processes relationships with others emotion personality 0 Periods of development 0 Prenatal period the time from conception to birth 0 Infancy the period from birth to 18 to 24 months 0 Early childhood the period from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6 years old 0 Middle and late childhood the period extending from about 6 to 11 years of age Adolescence the transitional period from childhood to early adulthood Periods of development 0 Early adulthood the period that begins in late teens or early twenties and lasts through the thirties 0 Middle adulthood the developmental period that begins between 35 and 45 years of age and continues into the sixties 0 Late adulthood the developmental period that begins in the sixties and lasts until death 0 Prenatal development and birth 0 Germinal conception to 2 weeks 0 Embryonic 3 to 9 weeks 0 Fetal 9 weeks to birth 0 Teratogens OO 0 Alcohol I Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 0 Tobacco O Caffeine 0 Stress 0 Poverty 0 Costs of Prematurity and Low Birth Weight 0 Increased risk of learning disabilities cerebral palsy ADHD O In 2001 hospital costs for preterm and lowbirthweight babies 58 billion 0 Estimated costs to society for premature births 262 billion for the first several years of child s life 0 Children s physical development 0 Brain 0 Motor skills 39 Sit at 5 12 months 39 Crawl at 10 months I Walk at 12 months 0 Children s cognitive development 0 Schemas mental representations of the world 0 Assimilation fitting new information into existing schemas Professor Henriques Psychology 202 University of Wisconsin 0 Accommodation modifying existing schemas to fit new information I Piaget s stages of development 0 Sensorimotor Stage 0 Preoperational Stage 0 Concrete Operational Stage 0 Formal Operations Stage I Sensorimotor Stage 0 Object permanence objects exist even When out of view 0 Separation anxiety I Preoperational Stage 0 Egocentrism 0 Conservation preoperational child does not understand I Concrete Operational Stage 0 Begins When child understands conservation 0 Think like adults except cannot think abstractly 0 Formal Operations Stage 0 ble to reason on a logical hypothetical level I Piaget s Legacy 0 Development comes in stages 0 He underestimated When skills emerge in childhood 0 He overestimated When skills emerge in adolescence O BUT he got the pattern right I Vygotsky O Zones of Proximal Development 0 Scaffolding 0 Infant Temperament 0 Easy 0 Difficult 0 Slow to Warm Up 0 Attachment 0 Harlow monkeys I Harlow s Attachment Studies 0 The Cloth Mother 0 Attachment 0 Harry Harlow monkeys O Schanberg amp Field 0 Mary Ainsworth humans I Styles of Attachment I Securely attached I Ambivalently attached I Resistant I Disorganized aka Disoriented I Avoidantly attached Professor Henriques Psychology 202 University of Wisconsin 0 Fathers and children 0 Highly involved fathers result in increased social and cognitive competence 0 Fathers and children 0 Style of play is different 0 Day care controversy 0 Class Group Discussion 0 What do you think might be the benefits of nonparental child care 0 What do you think might be the costs of putting a child in nonparental day care 0 The working poor have always had to put their children in day care and yet this has only been an issue for the last 20 years 0 Bottom line Would you put your child in day care 0 Day care 0 Day care infants more likely to be 0 Day care may or may not be associated with 0 High quality child care associated with increased 0 Quality of mothering and maternal sensitivity are more important to developmental outcome 0 Shortterm and longterm effects of early parental employment on children 0 Working more hours correlated with slightly lower cognitive development and slightly lower academic achievement 0 Early parental employment had no relation to children s behavior problems compliance selfesteem 0 Employment positively affected development by increasing family income 0 What is quality day care 0 Focus on teaching 0 Low studentteacher ratio 0 Caregivers who are sensitive and responsive O Ample verbal and cognitive stimulation 0 Stable providers 0 Stability of child care providers 0 Turnover is approximately 40 per year 0 Average hourly wage is 940 median 849 0 Parking lot attendants 1038hour 0 Service station attendants 948hour 0 Bellhop 1149hour 0 Parenting styles 0 Authoritarian set the rules and expect them to be followed 0 Authoritative set high but realistic standards 0 Indulgent make few rules or demands 0 Neglectf39ul unconcerned and uninvolved 0 Parenting style and selfesteem O Coopersmith study 0 Kohlberg s stages of moral development Professor Henriques Psychology 202 University of Wisconsin 0 Preconventional based on consequences 0 Conventional morality based on societal rules and laws 0 Postconventional morality judged in terms of abstract principles which may transcend laws I Criticism of Kohlberg s theory Gilligan 0 Justice perspective vs Care perspective 0 Little evidence to support gender differences 0 Erikson s Model Children s socioemotional development 0 Stage 1 Trust vs Mistrust 0 Stage 2 Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt I Ages 1 to 3 years 0 Stage 3 Initiative vs Guilt I Ages 3 to 6 years 0 Stage 4 Industry vs Inferiority I Ages 6 to puberty 0 Stage 5 Identity versus Role Confusion I Adolescence 0 Stage 6 Intimacy versus Isolation I Young adulthood 0 Stage 7 Generativity versus Stagnation I Middle adulthood 0 Stage 8 Ego Integrity versus Despair I Late adulthood 0 Gender identity and Gender role 0 Learning Theories 0 Social Learning Theory 0 Cognitive Theories 0 Cognitive developmental theory of gender 0 Gender schema theory 0 Adolescence O The nature of adolescence 0 Physical development 0 ParentAdolescent relationships I What can you do to raise healthy happy children 0 Breastfeeding advised for at least the first year of life I Higher IQ I Increased resistant to illness 0 If you want your children to be brilliant read them fairy tales if you want them to be more brilliant read them more fairy tales Albert Einstein 0 Talk to your children I Hart amp Risley I 60 Total Parent Talk and Child s vocabulary at age 3 I 78 Extra Talk and StanfordBinet IQ at age 3 Professor Henriques Psychology 202 University of Wisconsin 0 77 Extra Talk and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores at age 9 Sociological research suggests that 80 of the variation in public school performance results from family effects Farkas 0 American Association of Pediatrics recommends no TV for children under 2 years of age TV viewing effects brain development TV violence promotes aggression TV promotes sex TV makes people fat 0 Several longitudinal studies have shown that corporal punishment Increases later antisocial behavior Increases the likelihood of interpersonal violence directed at peers and parents Increases the likelihood of dating violence Decreases the likelihood of above average cognitive development
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