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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by emily ingram on Sunday January 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY270 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 288 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/18/15
Psych 370 Test 1 Notes Old approach to history presentist look at past and have the tendency to see them through the context of current events interna Looking inside one eld personalistic look at history as great men doing things big changes New approach to history Historicist how older knowledge is a stepping stone for stuff today External Naturalistic Zeitgeist Schools of Thought Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt Psychoanalysis Humanism Cognitive Most today are a mix Shift from experimental to applied Genesis of Psycholog founded about 150 years ago seeking to answer philosophical questions in a lab original focus was the scienti c study of the human mind still relatively new Art or Science Greeks No distinction between science and philosophy Extensive theories and disagreements Thomas Kuhn39s Paradigms How does science work Traditiona view Data accumulates over time Kuhn Shared worldview of standards Preparadigmatic phase Competing viewpoints Norma science phase Evidence gathering to support the paradigm Anomalies Discovery of exceptions lead to a paradigm shift The Principle of Falsi ability Karl Popper Said theories must be falsi able Progress comes with risky predictions Postdiction doesn t count see something from behind and make it t must make new things Women in Psycholog 1800 s No girls allowed mostly Intellectual inferiority Periodicity function women are closer to nature and can t be trusted to make scienti c decisions bc of emotionsperiods Variabiity hypothesis men vary more then women Women are more average Mary Whiton Calkins Heen Bradford Thompson Wooley Margaret Floy Washburn African Americans in Psycholog 1800 s Minorities viewed as inferior 1930 s40 s Arguing racial differences in intelligence were due to racial bias and discrimination Frances Sumner Kenneth B Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark Doll studies gave kids different race dolls and ask questions or observe Found that they would rather play with the white doll white or black children Unresolved Basic lssues MindBody Problem Monistic Position Materialism matter is the only reality and therefore everything in the universe must be explained in terms of matter Mentalism ideaism Consciousness is the only reality and even the socalled physical world consists of ideas in our mind Neutral Monists believe that the one and only type of substance in the world is neither material nor mental It is more basic than either Dualistic Positions lnteractionism mind and body exist independently and in uence each other Emergent5m The mind emerges from brain states and then can in uence subsequent brain activity and thus behavior Bodyljmindljbehavior Epiphenomenalism The mind is a byproduct epiphenomena of brain activity and can t affect behavior mindljbodyljbehavior Parallelism Environmental experience causes both mental events and behavior and the two are totally independent and don t affect each other mindljenvironmentljbehavior Preestablished harmony mental and physical events are independent and don t affect one another but are coordinated by some external agent Example God Double Aspect5m mind and body don t interact but mental and physical events are experienced simultaneously and can t be separated because they are two aspects of reality Determinism vs Free Will Determinism The belief that everything that occurs has a cause which if known allows for the prediction and possible control of that occurrence Physical determinism emphasizes material causes of behavior that can be quanti ed and measured 0 Biological determinism emphasizes genetic and physiological determinants 0 Environmental determinism Emphasizes environmental events external to the organism o Sociocultural determinism Emphasizes the roles of society s rules customs and beliefs as determinants 0 Or an interaction of elements of all three 0 Physical determinism believe that the most important determinants of behavior are subjective including such things as beliefs emotions values 0 Soft determinism is a compromise of version of determinism Soft see human behavior as arising from a cognitive appraisal of options in a given situation 0 lndeterminism assumes that human behavior does have causes but they can t be completely known 0 Nondeterminism posits that human cognition and behavior are freely chosen and therefore not caused by antecedent events Nature Vs Nurture Appies to ideasknowledge as well as behavior Debated since the time of Aristotle and Plato no clear victor to either side Mechanism vs Vitalism Mechanism natural processes are governed and determined by mechanical aws Vitaism Life is dependent on a force that doesn t exist in inanimate objects Relationship to Humans There are obviously quantitative differences between different species of animas and between animals and humans The big question is whether there are also qualitative differences Appropriate Level of Explanation Reductionism involves explaining a complex phenomenon by reducing it to its simplest components Phenomenology refers to focusing on the wholeness of an experience without attempting to reduce it to component parts
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