Chapter 13- Unsafe Ground: Landslides and Other Mass Movements
Chapter 13- Unsafe Ground: Landslides and Other Mass Movements Geology 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alanna Wight on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Geology 101 at Washington State University taught by Wilkie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Geology in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Geology 101 Lectures Notes Chapter 13 Unsafe Ground Landslides and Other Mass Movements Mass wasting includes the processes that transport large quantities of earth materials rock sediment soil down slope under the influence of gravity landslide Gravity is the controlling force Mass wasting is an important part of erosion process in hilly and mountain regions Factors that Influence Mass Wasting 1 Nature of slope material solid rock Stability of solid rock may be reduced by 0 deformation structures folds and faults 0 mechanical weathering 0 metamorphic rock 0 sedimentary rocks 0 foliated metamorphic rocks Unconsolidated Material 0 Angle of Response The maximum angle at which a slope of loose material will lie without cascading down Vegetation Plants add slope stability by protection against erosion 1 Water Content Water fills pore spaces between sediments reduces internal resistance adds weight Saturated vs Unsaturated dry particles bound only by size and friction with one another unsaturated bound by surface tension of water resist movement like sand castle saturated particles separated by water acts as a lubricant allowing them to flow 3 The steepness of the slope Processes that can create steeper slopes Faulting Folding Tilting Structures River cutting Erosion Wave Action Quarrying Road cuts For Information about Puget Sound and landslides Check out www ecy wa qovproqramssealandslides Classification of Mass Wasting Mass wasting events are classified by 0 Nature of material 0 Speed few cmyr to kmhour 0 Nature of movement Mv MUN MI Nll ARI 39lAlel MIDWNNL if I DHMLNANI MA MIA WAN R UK UK DNHNT AND llCKllquot 0 Nil U0U1Nl 94009 W b Ohb OM Q si OWE Winn tau01 a Nd I uni0 SHIU Classification Fall Solid blocks of rock fall rapidly ms from a steep or vertical slope Talus rocky accumulation at the foot of a steep cliff Rock Avalanche flows by entraining air as it moves down slope Slide Single mass of rock rock slide or sediment rock slide is released and moves rapidly along a plane of weakness bedding foliation exfoliation joints Example Gros Ventre Wyoming 1 plane of weakness is bedding surface along shale 2 bedding dips into the valley 3 bedding plane lubricated by water broke loose and dammed the river creating a lake 4 river broke through debris causing disastrous flooding downstream Creep downhill movement of soil or other debris slowest mass weathering process mmyr 0 Unconsolidated material moves slowly down slope under the influence of gravity 0 Causes once vertical objects to slant over time Slump A rapid slide of unconsolidated material usually soil or rock along a curved surface Example Palouse Flows fluid mass movements high water content Earthflow soils relatively slow Debris flows more coarse than sand can carry huge boulders Mudflows amp Lahars unconsolidated sediment or soil large quantities of water both can carry huge boulders Debris Avalanche materials coarser soil and rock usually in mountainous areas and moves extremely rapidly sometimes gt200kmhr
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