Test 2: Week 3 - Anthro 150
Test 2: Week 3 - Anthro 150 Anthro 150
Popular in The Ancient World
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Pletzer on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 150 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by J. Karsten in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see The Ancient World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer October 19 2015 o Origins of Agriculture 0 Theones I Oasis hypothesis 0 Changing environment forces congregation of life at oases o Domestication becomes necessary for survival 0 Why this theory is unlikely 0 Global carbon dioxide levels increase 33 at end of Pleistocene I Encourages plant life I Increased plant growth would have been favorable 0 Environment was actually more habitable following Ice Age I Natural Habitat Hypothesis 0 Introduced by Robert Braidwood 0 States domestication likely occurred first in the natural habitat of the domesticated species 0 Fertile Crescent 0 Origin of many domesticated plants seen today 0 Jarma I Site within fertile crescent I Findings support hypothesis 0 Hypothesis on its own doesn t answer why 0 Explanation I The people of the time were just ready culturally psychologically technologically I They had settled down I Population pressure and edge hypotheses o Introduced by Lewis Binford o Believed agriculture was incredibly difficult and not advantageous enough 0 In order for the switch to occur it would ve had to become absolutely essential for survival of the population 0 Population pressure hypothesis 0 Population had grown so large that there were not enough naturally available resources to sustain it 0 Agriculture and domestication become necessary 0 Edge hypothesis 0 Complimentary to population pressure hypothesis 0 States evolution of agriculture and domestication would ve occurred on the very edge of fertile landscapes Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer I Places where resources were available but were not plentiful enough to be sustainable without purposeful cultivation I SymbolicReligious Hypothesis 0 Change in religious ideas of some sort led to domestication I Social hypothesis 0 Relies on a change in culture 0 Entrepreneurs began to grow food to build up a surplus 0 Used for trade 0 Possibly to increase social status threw gathering and provided food 0 Problems with Theories using Southwest Asia as a model I Some villages did exist on the margins of fertile landscapes o Populations not large enough to require domestication I Cooler and moister climate following Pleistocene I Evidence from many sites suggests the following progression of events 0 Sedentism gt domestication of plants gt domestication of animals gt pottery o In Mesoamerica sedentism followed the domestication of plants 0 Sites I Ain Mahalla o Natufian between the end of the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Neolithic 0 11000 9000 BC o Levant an area that covers multiple countries in the middle east mainly Israel 0 Site 12 acre 200300 people 3 layers Round semisunken houses I 1025ft in diameter I Significance of round shape 0 Before agriculture round houses 0 After agriculture rectangular houses 0 Change seen worldwide I Within houses 0 Pestle and mortars hearths bins for storing grains 0 Pits in common areas for food storage 0 Burials I Used old storage pits I Single individuals often buried under floor in homes 0000 Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer I Natufian woman 0 Buried with a puppy pet 0 Dogs domesticated at end of Pleistocene o Natufian Artifacts I Ground stone artifacts I Plates bowls mortars pestles I Animal bones wild pig deer wild goat auroch gazelle I Dental caries disease cavities 0 Can be serious enough to cause infection and death 0 Large increase with reliance on cereals o More sugar I Wild barley seeds I Sickle blades 0 Chip stone blades mounted in bone or antler 0 Before domestication of plants 0 Kites narrowing rock enclosures 0 Used to herd migrating gazelles into a small area I Trapped and easily killed I Gobekli Tepe 0 Mountain ridge site all other sites of period in valleys and near water 0 Not a habitation site 0 Oldest humanmade stone structure 0 First temple most likely high ritual importance 0 20 round structures 0 Massive outer pillars Tshaped limestone Stone benches between outer pillars Unworked stone floor Pillars beautifully decorated rarely depicted humans 8000 BC site intentionally buried in sand 0000 I Abu Hurayra 0 Site of first domesticated plant 0 Rye 10000 BC 0 Climate change I 18000 4000 BC I 8000 BC temperature increase reduces effective precipitation levels for plant growth 0 Tell mound site 0 Accumulation of garbage and settlement remains built up over thousands of years 0 10500 6000 BC o 25ft of piled up debris Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer o Natufian o Warmwet climate Near Euphrates river Circular pit houses 200300 people Near gazelle migration 0 Oak and pistachio trees 0 10000 BC climate becomes cooler and drier 0 Oak and pistachio trees disappear 0 Wild wheats remain logically should ve disappeared along with the forests I Evidence of early agriculture I Domesticate between 25300 years 0 Wild lentils disappear and then reappear I People went and found wild lentils brought them back and cultivated them 0 O O 0 October 21 2015 o Origins of Agriculture 0 Sites I Tell Abu Hurayra o Salvage excavation flooded with construction of dam 0 10500 6000 BC o 25ft of debris o Natufian o Warmwet climate 0 Near Euphrates river 0 Start out with circular dwellings I Later make switch to mud brick rectangular houses 0 10000 BC o Forests disappear 0 Wild wheats remain I Sign of cultivation I Domestication o Likely occurred between 25300 years 0 Wild lentils disappear then reappear 0 Fish bones and shells from Euphrates 0 Before domestication gazelle is very important 0 7500 BC I Switch to reliance on sheep and goats 0 Population 20003000 Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer o 30 acre site 0 Rectangular mud brick houses 0 Exotic items 0 Turquoise Mediterranean shells stones from Jordan 0 Sign of trade 0 Zooarchaeology Domestication geography did it occur where the animals roamed wild abundance morphology shape and size changes demographics pattern of slaughter 0 Demographic research mortality profiles 0 Attritional how mortality would be expected to appear naturally in the Wild 0 Catastrophic if the entire population were wiped out by one massive disastrous event 0 Primedominated middle and young aged males highest deaths I Sign of human control 0 Archaeobotany I Study fossilized plant remains o Carbonized remains charred o Floats 0 Site I Jericho 0 Tell 0 6acres o Oldest continuously inhabited site 0 Settled since 10000 BC o Neolithic 8500 7600 BC 0 Round pit houses 0 Headless burials I Skulls found elsewhere 0 Covered face with lifelike clay mask 0 Shells for eyes 0 Sign of ancestor worship 0 Population 600 people 0 Reliance on cereals o Reliance shift from gazelle to sheepgoats 0 Tower wall ditch o The original wall not the biblical one o 27ft tall 0 7900 BC 8th millennium I Supposedly egalitarian community at time 0 Why build the wall Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer 0 Tower within wall I No real evidence of warfare I Possibly to protect from flood waters 0 Maybe even gazelle stampedes 0 Signs of extensive trade I Salt tar sulfur I Shells I Turquoise I Obsidian volcanic glass 0 Excellent for stone tools rare I Cypress island 0 Insular dwarfism occurred in hippos o Hunted to extinction o Humans brought wild not domesticated deer and released them to breed to build a food source I Catalhoyuk 0 Within Fertile Crescent 0 7250 BC o 32 acres 0 Tell 0 1900x1000x65 0 10000 people 0 Egalitarian 0 Houses 0 30sqyds o 20 of structures shrines o Paintings I Depict bull many times in many ways 0 Wild and domesticated foods 0 Obsidian volcanic glass excellent for stone tools rare mined 0 Center for controlled trade I Obsidian made Catalhoyuk a prosperous regional center 0 Because of its rarity and geographical uniqueness obsidian can be sourced to its origin points 0 Adjoined rectangular buildings 0 No doors entered through roof I Safety 0 Courtyards in center areas of community 0 Burials 0 Under house floor 0 First burial in pit generally children high adolescent death rate I 23 generations buried Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer I Newly married families built new house 0 Pattern of decay suggests bodies were left out in elements for significant period of time before buried o Paintings 0 Volcano erupting over village unclear what village is depicted o Bulls 0 Lots of humans I Bulls and human paintings close proximity and usually connected in some way I Always use red and black 0 Carving 0 Female figurines o Sculptures in walls 0 Bull 0 Human females giving birth to animals 0 Cat deity 0 Many obsidian tools I Mehgarh Pakistan 0 7th millennium 0 6000s BC Local strain of domesticated barely 0 Possibly imported from west 0 Likely indigenous domestication o Domesticated sheepgoats 0 Originally relied on gazelle 0 After 6000 BC pottery domestication importance 0 Zebu cattle indigenous domesticate 0 Cotton I 5000 BC oldest domesticated cotton 0 Rectangularsettlements o Benches built into walls 0 Tunnels from room to room 0 Sheepgoat skeletal similarities make it impossible to distinguish 0 Human individual buried with 5 young sheepgoats 0 High importance 0 Pottery I Appeared after start of sedentary lifestyle andor transition to agriculture I Potsherds pieces of broken pottery used to help distinguish temporal markers I Temporal markers differences in stylization by time periods I Oldest pottery 1500018000 years ago 0 China 0 Chinese Neolithic I Yang Shao culture Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer No Class 6th millennium BC Domesticated millet and pigs ShangShan on Yangtze river 0 Domesticated rice by 5000 BC Site 0 Banpots un o 125 175 acres 0 100 houses I Mix of circular and square 0 Semisunken o 1016ft diameter Defensive ditch surrounding settlement Signs of domestication of I Millet I Chestnuts hazelnuts I Hemp I Silk 0 Children buried in ceramics I Placed in pottery buried outside houses 0 Central building I Platformed area in center of settlement I Latter part of Neolithic I 2 interpretations 0 Signs of social inequality 0 Communalpublic building October 23 2015 Test Moved Wednesday November 6 2015
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