Popular in Statistics for Biosciences
Popular in Statistics
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giber Lactus on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to STP 231 at Arizona State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Statistics for Biosciences in Statistics at Arizona State University.
Reviews for First class
If Giber isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/26/15
Chapter 1 The Study of Matter Monday August 24 2015 1200 PM The Study of Matter Matter is the physical material of the universe It Has mass Occupies space Has properties that distinguish it Is made up of different combinations of only a relatively small number of elements Chemistry is basically the study of matter Matter can be visible or invisible gas rock etc Solid liquid gas Some matter is harder to distinct Building Blocks Matter is made up of atoms fundamental part of matter The properties of matter depend upon the identity and arrangement of the atoms Atoms combine to form molecules All matter is quotchemicalquot not a bad thing necessarily Atoms are like Legos take them apart put them together Classifying Matter States Solid definite shape and volume not compressible Liquid definite volume takes shape of its container not compressible Gas compressible takes shape of its container no definite volume Classifying Matter Continued Pure substances have compositions that don39t vary from sample to sample Elements cannot be decomposeblqWSl pl e iGs b s t ah c sCPEMW Periodic Table of the Elements Compounds are combinations of two or more elements in distinct proportions E Carbon Dioxide can only be one atom of oxygen and two atoms of carbon Law of Definite Proportions Each element can be like a Lego in a different color Elements cannot have more than one atom in it Once there are two atoms bonded together can be the same element it is called a molecule Lecture Notes Page 1 Classifying Matter Continued Mixtures Two or more components No definite proportions Homogeneous mixtures are uniform throughout Often called solutions Heterogeneous mixtures vary through sample Mixtures don39t get combined chemically Things are just being mixed together in space Mixtures are separable processes such as heating Mixture is also called a solution and is not a pure substance Summary of Atoms Molecules Solutions Compounds and Mixtures There can be atoms of an element one element by itself as a singular atom Molecules of an element one element stuck to itself as one or more atoms Molecules of a compound two or more elements stuck to each other with 2 or more atoms Mixture of elements and a compound Mixture of molecules of a compound and molecules of an element Which of the following is a compound A Coffee with cream and sugar B Carbon dioxide gas C02 C A block of gold Au on the periodic table D A sample of sea water Answer is B because it is two elements stuck together with more than 1 atom Properties of Matter Physical Properties are measurable without changing identity of compound Ex Color odor melting point mp boiling point bp density Chemical Properties describe chemical reactivity of a substance Ex Ability to burn in oxygen Changes Physical Changes alter physical appearance but not chemical composition Ex boiling melting Chemical Changes or reactions transform the substance into a new substance Ex nail rusting Summary of Changes and Mixtures Lecture Notes Page 2 Making and burning a candle Physical change of melting Add red dye of physical change Add rose petals for physical change heterogeneous mixture Wax solidify on wick back to physical change into solid Burning of candle in the end to be a chemical change More Properties of Matter Intensive Properties Do not depend on the amount of substance Can to some extent be used to identify the substance Ex Color odor density melting point etc is always the same Extensive Properties Depend upon the amount of substance Ex weight volume etc can vary from amount Question True or False temperature is an intensive property Answer is intensive Heat is extensive Units of Measurement Mass Kilogram kg Length Meter m Time Second squota Temperature Kelvin K Amount of substance Mole mol Electric current Ampere A Luminous intensity Candela cd Kelvin O K absolute zero no heat or molecular movement 173 K 100 Celsius 373 K O Celsius freezing K Celsius 273 298 K 25 Celsius room temperature 310 K 37Celsius physiological temperature 98 Fahrenheit Prefixes These allow us to indicate degrees of magnitude or fractions of units Giga G 10A9 not really used Mega M 10 KHok1OA3 Lecture Notes Page 3 Heat is a measure of energy Temperature is a way to determine which way heat would flow if it was put next to something Basically something with a heat of 100 Celsius will flow to a substance with 25 Celsius Deci d 10quot1 not really used Centi c 10A2 Milli m 10quot3 Micro mew 10quot6 Nano n 10quot9 Pico p 10quot12 not really used Femto f 10quot15 not really used Which of the following is equal to 1 mg a 10quot3 g 1 kg b 10quot3 kg 1 Mg c 10quot3 kg 1 g d 10quot3 g 1 mg Answer D 10quot3 g Important Derived Units Volume is amount of space a substance takes up Lengthquot3 or mquot3 Commonly also as cmquot3 or cc One cc is one mL Density is the amount of mass per unit volume Massvolume or gcmquot3 or gmL or gcc All equal density Uncertainty in Measurement Exact number have values that can be knownexactly lnexact numbers have some uncertainty associated with them Precision is how close several measurements are to each other Accuracy is how close they are to the true value Counting there is an exact number There is no inexactness here Measurement more ofjust the closest estimate possible There is some inexactness here Significant Figures Quecjgae Measured quantities are reported totiOdTlel eglEa flLum mmv quazcow Significant Figures are the digits of a measured quantity Nonzeros are ALWAYS significant 12345 Zeros between nonzeros are significant 10001 Zeros at the beginning of a number are NEVER significant 000006 or 000075 Zeros at the end of a number are significant if there is a decimal in the number 100000 or 10000000000 If there is millimeter marking you could say 755 cm one Lecture Notes Page 4 mark of uncertainty If there is no millimeter marking then it39d be 75 cm Multiplication uses the smallest amount of Sig Figs Addition uses the biggest amount of Sig Figs 1542 has four significant figures 102 x 10 3 has three significant figures 00863 and 0000764 each have three significant figures 1400 has only two significant figures but 1400 has four and 1400000 has seven Which of the following has the largest number of significant digits a 000062 b 100062 c 62000 d 6200000 Answer D 6200000 Calculations Significant figures are used to help maintain but not increase certainty in calculations Multiplyingdividing same number of sig figs as least significant can be beyond decimals Addingsubtracting same number of decimals as measure with fewest just decimals Exact numbers do not affect the sig figs in the answer 32241 g for every 612 mL and density gmL 32241g612 mL 0528 gmL But can only use 3 sig figs because of 612 so answer is 0528 gmL Zero in front is not significant so that39s why it39s 0528 instead of 053 1025 111 2132 23482 But 111 only goes to tenths place Answer 235 Dimensional Analysis A systematic way of stringing together several calculations while keeping track of units Often involves conversion factors May involve several conversions Dimensional Analysis Problems What is the mass g of 1 gal of ethanol Density 79 gmL and 3785 Lecture Notes Page 5 mLgal m K 1 I r0 Mm 0i x 3m M K 1019 1WD l ML L l h g yd Kira1W 355 LAME WNW r 3W9 lpw lw VWK wwcs 1001 Necnzwl Omg ilwg Ll MM w o 87 5ml UMML l ENKX Ml lt97 A Lomw Temperature A More Complex Conversion Celsius 59 Fahrenheit 32 K Celsius 27315 515 V7 Lecture Notes Page 6