Chapter 7 HNES 250
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Dosso on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Nutrition science in Nursing and Health Sciences at North Dakota State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Chapter 7 Power Point Fillins Slide 2 o T F T T T Slide 3 0 Chemical 0 Physical Slide 4 0 Extract Energy 0 Produce Slide 5 o Condensation o Anabolic o Catabolic Slide 7 o Glycogen 0 Fatty acids 0 Cholesterol 0 Lipoprotein o Ammonia Slide 8 0 Oxygen 0 Growth Slide 11 0 ATP 0 Universal energy currency Slide 13 o Enzymes o ENERGY o GLYCEROL 0 Minerals Slide 15 o GLYCOLYSIS o ANAEROBICALLY o OXYGEN o SUSTAINED o AEROBIC Slide 19 o Gycoysis o Pyruvate o Acetyl CoA Slide 20 0 Metabolic 0 TCA Cycle 0 Fatty Acids o Pantothenic Acid Slide 32 o Ketosis o Appetite 0 Very low Kcal Slide 33 o 20 o Firstpass o Dehydration 0 Liver o MEOS o 7 0 Slide 36 0 Car accidents 0 Assaults Slide 38 o Ethanol o Glycerol o Methanol Slide 41 0 Small to moderate Slide 42 o MEOS o Exceeds 0 Brain 0 Fetus Slide 44 o Muscles o Vertigo 0 Depression 0 Slide 49 o Steatorisis o Cirrhosis NOTES Steroids build tissue so they are anabolic Our bodies are continuously breaking down and building up 0 The most active metabolic sites are the liver and muscle cells 0 Water is a byproduct of anabolism Water is used for catabolic reactions to break molecules down 0 Important 0 Metabolic work of the Liver Slide 7 o The liver is always working 0 Over 60 of our energy is being used on things that are not in our immediate control 0 Heart beat 0 Breathing 0 Thinking 0 Breaking down food 0 And more Cells 0 Mitochondria is the power house and requires the most energy ATP Adenosine Triphosphate 0 Our bodies energy 0 There is also AMP amp ADP which all differ by the number of phosphates Every macronutrient eventually becomes ATP 0 There are anaerobic and aerobic processes 0 There are only Aerobic processes in the mitochondria These aerobic processes provide the most ATP Sometimes cofactors or coenzymes are needed for production Carbohydrates o Converted into glucose 6carbon o Goes through glycolysis and is converted into 2 pyruvate 3carbon 0 Once oxygen is available aerobic metabolism occurs and we get Acetyl CoA 0 Then Acetyl CoA goes into the citric acid cycle krebs cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle Occurs in the mitochondria 0 Now it enters into the electron transport chain which produces a signi cant amount of energy ATP GLYCOLYSIS o Occurs in the cytosol o Glucose has 6 carbons and is converted into 2 pyruvate molecules Pyruvate only has 3 carbons o Glycolysis is reversible o It can also take 2 pyruvate molecules are make a glucose molecule 0 Produces a net of 2 ATP 4 produced and 2 used Only 2 left net of 2 ATP THEN Oxygen aids in the breakdown of both molecules of Pyruvate lose a carbon and become Acetyl CoA which has 2 carbons o Pantothenic Acid is what our bodies use to create Acetyl CoA Fatty acids have long carbon chains only in even numbers Trigylcerides o The backbone of glycerol can start at glycolysis o Glycolysis is anaerobic o The fatty acids can skip a few steps and start at the TCA cycle The fatty acids are converted into Acetyl CoA Acetyl CoA is made in the mitochondria and requires oxygen Gluconeogenesis is the process of making glucose the reverse of glycolysis Amino acids 3 points of entry 0 Glucogenic o Ketogenic Using protein for energy is acceptable but not the best idea because it runs through a process of deamination which produces ammonia Too much ammonia is bad for us SUMMARY TABLE ON SLIDE 25 Fat can t be converted into glucose or amino acids 0 The glycerol backbones of triglycerols can be converted to glucose but not the fatty acid chains Glucose can produce 2 molecules of Acetyl CoA Protein can produce 1 Acetyl CoA Lipids Fatty Acids can produce lots of Acetyl CoA 0 Making more ATP than the others If oxyloacetate isn39t available to complete the TCA cycle a ketone will be produced instead Acetyl CoA can be turned back into fatty acids but not glucose it39s not reversible Alcohol 0 Only 20 of alcohol is broken down in the stomach o The other 80 is absorbed by the blood and metabolized by the liver The liver can only metabolize a small amount of alcohol every hour thus excessive drinking leads to a hangover Eating food with drinking slows absorption and helps with metabolizing alcohol 0 Most absorption is in the upper part of the small intestine Injuries associated with alcohol SLIDES 3435 Ethanol is the alcohol in beer wine ect Glycerol is alcohol used to make triglycerides Alcohol is commonly turned into fat beer belly 0 Alcohol Poisoning occurs with excessive drinking because the liver can39t keep up Woman have a higher body fat percentage and less body water for alcohol dilution Woman have a smaller liver and therefore less metabolization of liver Differences in hormones also affect alcoholic metabolism Moderate drinking 0 1 drink for woman 0 2 drinks for men PER DAY