Lecture 11 Making a Living
Lecture 11 Making a Living Anthropology 1000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Bird on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher Berk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Lecture 11 Making a Living Economy and Economics gt a system of production distribution and consumption of resources gt the study of such systems Economic Anthropology gt The study of economics in comparative perspective gt The part of the discipline that debates issues of human nature that related directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living Subsistence gt Satisfaction of the most basic material survival needs food clothing and shelter 0 gt Methods for meeting these needs gt Making a living and foraging for food 0 Until 10000 years ago there was no difference between these two things 0 With the advent of domestication and new forms of food production based on farming this began to change 0 Today fewer than 30000 people on the planet make their living by foraging and this number is decreasing constantly Making a Living gt Most humans live in economies based on a mix of activities 1 Cultivation 2 Pastoralism 3 Trading Goods and Services for Cash 4 Industrial Production 5 Management and Control Adaptive Strategies gt Before the Industrial Revolution 18th century the vast majority of the world s population lived in economies based on four quotadaptive strategiesquot all but one of which developed in only the last ten thousand years 1 Foraging or hunting and gathering 2 Horticulture 3 Agriculture 4 Pastoralism 5 gt Yehudi Cohen s typologies 1974 0 Based on associating or covariations between two or more variables Equal factors that are linked and interrelated Equal typically found together Equal when change happens to one the other tends to experience change as well Correlations between subsistence strategies and SocialPolitical Organization EnvironmentGeography Population Density Diet WNl O Cohen s Typology gt There are some disclaimers o This typology is NOT perfect some groups have evidence others have correlated features BUT NOT ALL 0 Not an evolutionary schema 0 Not mutually exclusive Foraging gt Correlations and Features 1 Depends on naturally available food 2 Small populations 3 Mobile 4 Relatively egalitarian 5 Gendered division of labor gt Examples San of Southern Africa the Hadza of Tanzania Australian Aborigines Horticulture gt Correlations and features 1 burned clearings made for temporary agriculture 0 IE Slash and Burn methods 2 Handheld tools like hoes and digging sticks 3 Low yields 4 Inequalities appear gt Examples Kawelka of Papua New Guinea Kuikuru of Central Brazil Agriculture gt Picture of farming called terraces o A feature of agricultural production used for irrigation evenly distribute water and less erosion o More at with little dividers avoid erosion 0 Plant more 0 Correlations and features 0 Horticulture is much smaller yield than agriculture 0 More complex tools compared to horticulture IE Plows irrigation systems soil conservation domestic animalsdraft animals manure for fertilizer slash and burn 0 Permanent plots and elds Intensive as far as labor is concerned Sedentary lifestyle due to a higher population density 0 Increased specialization more diversity 0 Higher productivity More radical alteration of the environment 0 IE Deforestation for more places to live 0 Individual ownership More strati ed property rights 0 Agriculture vs horticulture Allows to farm more land and a larger population 0 IE Wet rice cultivation versus slash and burn Agriculture allows for more strati cation of social classes Agriculture produces surplus Supports craft specialization trade and hierarchies which leads to wealth and class differences 0 Adaptive Strategies 0 The backdrop against which we have been de ning these adaptive strategies is the economy in which we live which is o Foraging or hunting and gathering o Horticulture 0 Agriculture 0 Pastoralism Uses tools for mass production and mechanization Industrialization is based on machines and chemical processes IE fuel which make possible the development of manufacturing mass production and mechanism Industrialization produces large mobile skilled specialized and differently education labor forces Mode and Means of Production o ways of organizing production quota set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools skills organization and knowledgequot 0 major productive resources such as land territory labor and technology Production Theory 0 Karl Marx 18181883 Focused on the importance of human labor for transforming raw materials into desire products 0 Labor links humans to the material world around us and is a fundamentally social activity 0 Different modes of production o Tributary production kin production 0 producer allowed access to means of production in exchange for tribute IE Taxes Most common in feudalism means of production owned by the few factory owners that must sell labor power by factory workers MAIN POINT 0 Now dominant form of industrialized economy 0 All others must sell labor for temporary access to bene ts IE Cash Economics 0 The discipline we call economics developed as part of industrial society as a way of understanding how goods and services are produced distributed and consumed in modern cashbased market economics 0 In nite wants scarce means pro t maximization and rationality 0 Based on assumption of people have in nite wants never be satis ed in commercialism 0 Means are nite scarce means to accommodate wants so minimize time labor money capital etc o maximize pro t with scarce means in relation to in nite wants Assumed to be rational Naive realism Neoclassical Economics o quotfreequot because no traditional restrictions determining distribution not linked to social status 0 The market via supply and demand determines levels of production and consumption 0 Capitalism only form of economic rationality By extension noncapitalist societies are IRRATIONAL 0 THIS IS NOT TRUE FormalistSubstantivist Debate Formalists applied neoclassical economics to nonWestern societies and portrayed them as quotcloset capitalistsquot Substantivists reject this arguing that 0 There is more than on economic rationality 0 Not everything has a price and is for sale 0 Selfinterested materialism not universal o Capitalist market not the only mode of exchange Modes of Production 0 Different modes of production are structured in ways that alter the character of what an individuals want what they consider scarce or valuable and how they as individuals can get the things they want 0 Among the Kung Meat sharing 0 Among the Auburnites time money status choice autonomy Exchange 0 Economist Karl Polyani 1968 identi ed three principles of exchange 0 RECIPROCITY o REDISTRIBUTION o MARKETS Note not always about the money Reciprocity 0 Marshall Sahlins 3 types of reciprocity o exchange with no expectation of immediate return IE Parentchild giving foragers Very close social ties o exchange with anticipation of equal return lE Christmas gifts bartering cooperative work of the Amish Often by a set period of time Less closeness of social ties o the attempt to get something for nothing IE Cattle raiders OR FOR AS Ll39lTLE OR POSSIBLE Ways to combat Silenttrade Continuum Questions 0 How closely related are the parties to the exchange 0 How quickly and unsel sth are gifts reciprocated Bronislaw Malinowski Kula Ring Trobriand Islands 0 Go on majorjourneys to move objects from island to island over time to continue connection and alliances and strengthen or establish relationships Embody social connections Objects o for men counterclockwise o for women clockwise The Kula Ring 39 referring to participants and valuables Kula valuables must be passed on taking 210 years to makes the full cycle 0 Exchange accompanied by ceremony and magic Reinforces status and authority 0 System based on trust obligation and shame o Differentiated from gimwali barter Kula exchange of inalienable objects Kula like exchange in industrial societies Kula rational and interested transactions between independent individuals Reciprocity Now let s think about what the lens of reciprocity can teach us about 0 Dating courtship and marriage among Americans 0 Early Stages Can I trust you Still negative reciprocity o Then things become a little more BALANCED Also Known As the Hook Up Stage quotI ll be good to you I you be good to mequot Still somewhat distant expecting something in return o Love We are in love quotAll of me loves all of youquot More generalized Closer relations nothing immediate expected in return 0 The breakup Move back to negative reciprocity by way of balanced quotYou cheat on me cheat on youquot Hit em up style asking for something in return 0 Song by Blu Cantrell Redistribution When goods services or their equivalent move from the local level to a center 0 IE Taxation pooling tribute etc Eventually ows in reverse from the center back to the people 0 Think about the food surplus that drives state formation Potlatches 0 Northwest coast of North America Salish Kwakiutl etc 0 Community members often chiefs and other leaders give away food blankets copper and so forth in order to gain PRESTIGE o A ritualized redistribution Tends to be a competition who can give away more stuff 0 Through the lens of classical economic theory in which the pro t motive is considered to be a human universal potlatching is irrational and wasteful 0 Such a mindset is ethnocentric and fails to consider alternative meanings and social functions Cronk CC 12 argues that potlatching was a substitute for war o It can also be interpreted through an ecological lens 0 Times of plenty vs times of scarcity Markets Allpurpose money as a relation substitute 0 You don t know the person you re buying from 0 Supply and demand drives markets 0 Very uid diverse and there is a diversity of exchange These principles of exchange are not mutually exclusive In fact they all operate within our society