Lecture 9 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology
Lecture 9 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology APK3110c
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Adams on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to APK3110c at Florida State University taught by Dr. Robert Moffatt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Exercise Physiology AP KSI 109 92915 What causes the increase uptake of oxygen during exercise 39 Cardiac output amount ofblood pumped out ofthe heart o This increases with exercise 0 Referred to as or CO 0 Women have lower than men 46 vs 547 o Shooting 2 getting oxygenated blood through to the muscle groups 39 FICK Principle 0 Done in a controlled environment 0 Q V02 av02diff arterial vena cava oxygen difference 0 lood collected from an arterial artery pulmonary trunk o Arterial difference venous low oxygenated blood vs arterial oxygenated blood o 5 L of blood must pass through the heart to pick up the whole 250 mL with each uptake being 50 ml 93 V02 V avOEdiff 39 Blood from the superior vena cava and blood from the inferior yena cave is deoxygenated 1quot The pulmonary truan pulmonary arteries delivers low oxygenated blood back to the lungs 39 Oxygenated blood comes back into the heart through the pulmonary vein 0 To measure this parameter you need a sample from the vena cava and a sample from the pulmonary trunk so you can get a good mixture of venous blood and by going to the brachial artery you can get a good sample of arterial blood represents the avOZ difference 39 avDZdiff difference between the oxygen content in the arterial blood and the venous blood 0 Makes sense bc arterial blood was delivered to the tissues with the exception of the pulmonary artery we take what we need extract as much oxygen as we need depending on the metabolic effort of the cell and the rest is returned back to the heart Usually at rest when not a lot going on 939 usually 45 ml of blood 0 So you can measure the amount going to the tissues and you can measure the oxygen content prior to entering the lungs 0 F 01 Cells Exercise Physiology A PKBTIOEQ 92915 This drawing represents the left and right side ofthe heart skeletal muscle at the bottom and at the top is the lungs 0 Oxygen consumption V012 250 mL per min 0 So from the lungs we are bringing blood in using 250 mlL o In the right side of the heart 1 liter ofblood 1000 mL contains 150 mi of OZ We know that the circulatory tract allows this liter of blood to ow back to the heart into the pulmonary arteries through the lungs where it picks up oxygen arbitrary number 200 mL ofDZ which means it picked up 50 mi This liter of hlood that passes through the lungs picks up 50 mL 0102 This same liter of blood then works its way to the arterial system carrying 200 mh of OZ This same liter ofhlood goes to the cells and in this case the cells need 50 mL so they extract 50 mL of 02 which means that when it exits through the venous system this time it will be 150 ml of 02 ArterialVenous Oxygen Difference avOZ it accounts for what is extracted at the cell How many L of blood carrying 150 mh of 012 that must pass through the lungs to be fully loaded 0 What we know I We know that every minute we are consuming 150 mL of 02 i We know that at the muscle we are extracting 50 ml We also know that when we fully load the blood with oxygen it only contains 200 mL which means if we pull out 50 we have 150 the venous blood going through the pulmonary artery and the lungs again picking up another 50 mL 0 5 L of blood must pass from the heart into the lungs in order to consume that amount ofoxygen or 200 mL ofOZ i The V02 is 25UmLmin150mLmin or the difference between the oxygen content in the arteries and the veins 39 Dr 5 mL of blood o This represents the way we can literally calculate cardiac output Q During Exercise 39 When you being to exercise you extract more instead of extracting 5 mL at rest you may be extracting 15 ml at rest and instead of consuming 250 not you maybe consuming 3200 mL Exercise Physiology APKBllDQ 92915 0 So you can take these numbers and manipulate them to better understand the principle of blood flow in respect to the oxygen consumption relationship 39 Cardiac output related to oxygen consumption V02 from rest to maximum M 39 Cardiac outputs rise in untrained individuals from i 5 to about 25 mL at minimum and that at maximum 0 Can push it up significantly 4 or 5 times 39 With chronic aerobic training we see increases in oxygen consumption V0 2 and if we plotted them we would see values going from 5 to 35 ml per minute at minimum 0 Untrained max around 25 ml per min 0 Trained max around 35 ml per min 0 Highly trained max up to 40 mi per min L a We 39 RELATlONSHIP1As cardiac output Q increases so 1 I max does oxygen consumption m 3 e 51 39 Cardiac Output 39 As maximum oxygen consumption increases so does cardiac output 39 At rest and submaximal effort you cannot see a significant difference in trained and untrained individuals 0 At rest everyone s cardiac output is close to the same 0 Really no difference between trained and untrained individuals 39 Men and women respond the same to training increases but NOT at the same levels at maximum training 0 EXCEPTION A woman has a greater cardiac output at a given V02 I Women have less hemoglobin than men do so they deliver less oxygen 39 Men 1416 39 Women 12 14 I if hemoglobin levels are the same cardiac output Q will he the same also 39 But generally because they are not we find that women require a little more blood ow 39 What accounts for the rise in cardiac output Q Q We know that I That the muscles are working I We know that the more that they work the more difficult the more we will have to consume more 02 I Certainly the amount of cardiac output will foliow 0 increased HR beats per min increased SV milbeat or Lbeat Exercise Physiology APKBZLlDg 92915 39 Q SV 5 HR 1 Cardiac output stroke volume at heart rate 0 Cardiac output is a product of these two factors 1 Stroke Volume Heart Rate I Whatever you do to one or both of those wiil help carry the amount of blood flow out of the heart cardiac output Examples 39 lfwe are pushing out 051 L of blood per beat and the heart is beating 175 heats per minute what is the cardiac output 0 Stroke volume 051 Lbeat 0 Heart beat 175 beats per minute 391 Q 151 x 175 I Q 26 Cardiac output 2 26 0 If the heart rate goes higher the cardiac output goes higher if the stroke roiume goes higher the heart rate stays the same then the cardiac output goes higher 9 HR per volume of untrained individuals 0 Females 5070 millbeat o Males 80a100 nahbeat 439 So if we plot stroke volume against increasing oxygen consumed it may look like this for an untrained person 0 What about this relationship immediately catches your attention I You reach peak stroke volume before you reach maximal oxygen consumption 139 Commonly you will see the maximal stroke volume at 4045 ofVOZ max 39 Frank Starling Mechanism 0 One of the things that happen when you load l blood into the ventricles the ventricles expand a or stretch Q As they stretch they are able to generate more contractile force when they comeback to their old position again 3973 I You can stress myocardium around the 5 blood and you increase the rate of Cm L K i contractile forces causing it to contract quott 0 But you can only stress it so much and when you stretch it beyond a normal response it doesn t contract with that same contractile force quot anymore I When you stress it too much it won t 39 7 39 a a contract around 4060 of V02 max Relt M a So you can add more and more blood but the contractile response doesn t increase heyond that Exercise Physiology APK S 1 109 929 1 39 With training we make the assumption that things happen a little different 0 Female values increase from 7090 mL at rest 0 Men values increase to 100120 ml at rest With training and at rest BOTH females and males increase 0 When plotted 9 SAME curve SAME relationship except resting and sub maximum values are higher Chronic overload training 0 Maximal values are higher too I Females values increase to 100 120 mh at rest I Males values increase to 150 170 ml at rest 0 What chronic overload training do that allows that to happen I Increase in heart volume increase in ventricular volume taking in more and more blood an increase in that musculature ofthat region I You can go and measure the diameter of the musculature of those ventricles before and after chronic training and you will see an increase more muscle more muscle mass more force more heart volume more blood 399 stretch more force bc more muscle thereby increasing the volume 39 Lets look at the other part this equation Q 0 HR can be increased with decreasing oxygen consumption I Ex Can go from 70 beats per minute at rest to 200 beats per minute at exercise max I Looks like a linear relationship but its really not I lfyou look closer itls a linear relationship until about 7075 maximum velocity consumption but it tends to change a little bit after 0 And if we were to train these individuals for a month or two do that same work load and then plot their HR response to the work load at maximum you will see this the second line 0 So looking at this graphrelationship what do we conclude 0 Through submaximal work HR in commonly reduced as a result of aerobic training 0 We cannot see any significant changes in maximum HR as a result of training 9 if anything you are more likely to go up but that would mean that cardiac output would go up which increases SV which allows you to deliver more blood and contain more 02 So what is the advantage 0 The greatest and most significant change occurs as a result of increasing SV associated with training 100 H t thaws5 Nun Exercise Phygiolo APKB 1109 92915 Training DECREASES HR 0 At rest iIR commonly decreases with aerobic training submaximal work 39 Advantage o The greatest most important change occurs with an iNCREASE in SV quot Maximum INCREASE in cardiac output Q 2 maximum iNCREASE in SV HE gong 13 a1nls heat We 0F me g Rest i ll 5 l 39 quot max V0 391 Remember m L n Q There is no apparent difference in rest and submaximal work in terms of cardiac output 0 But there is an increase in SV and rest and at maximum o Because of the training involved HR goes down resting and submax39imal effort 0 Maximum increase in Q is attributable to maximum increase in SV How do we account for the fact that submaximal and rest of cardiac output don t change 0 O 0 It s a balance between the two Even though S V increases at rest and increases from submaxirnal work HR goes the other way But yet you are still able to consume the same amount 0102 The heart is a muscle and if you work it requires oxygen The more it works the more it beats the more frequently it beats ad you exercise the more oxygen it requires Ex measure individuals HR and SV Whiie they are performing work O 0 Train them for 6 months bring them back and do the same work load and same conditions and measure their HR and SV before and after You will see 5V increase and HR increase but at the same time Q stays the same So the trade off is that you are still consuming the same amount of oxygen you are still pumping out the same amount ofblood but you are able to pump out the same amount of blood now because 5 increases through that training of submaxirnal work The HR decreases with submaximal work So the heart doesn t have to beat as frequently to produce the same amount of oxygen consumed or to produce the same amount of blood ow Exercise Physiology APKB 1 109 92915 0 Because the increase SVF increase musculature increase in contractile forces increased blood flow I Heart beats more requires more oxygen 39 Heart beats less requires less oxygen 39 Advantage o The extra oxygen saved can go to the skeletal muscles to perform more work 0 Thereby allowing you to use more oxygen than you were theoretically aisle to extract Q i x SV a Untrained individual 70 mLb eat Trained li itiiuitlual 72 milbeat 5i i iiLi fJUEil Mil i39nilieat Calculate Q Untrained Individual Q 3972 x 70 5040 39 quoti iainctl il39id ththiEii Q Si LDU 0 Training vs Not training V02 For a given Q there is a DECREASE in HR and an iNICREASE in SV 39 Requires less oxygen 0 Deficiency 39 Factors for allowing an increase 39 Training influences the following at rest 0 INCREASE in vagal in uence DECREASE sympathetic drive DECREASE HR 0 SW increases in hiooti flow increases in strength of contraction increases in strength of muscle Ha iall Exercise Physiology APKSllOg 92915 Factors affecting 39 Nervous system response 39 HR 0 Parasympathetic Ach DECREASES o Sympathetic Norepinephrine INCREASES SV 0 Sympathetic Norepinephrine INCREASES I Myocontractility contractile force 0 Frank Starling stretches the myocardium INCREASES I Stretches the myocardium increasing EV o End Diastolic Volume INCREASES The more EV you have the more blood you have i In uenced by Frank Starling and Venus Return 39 More blood more EDV more stretch greater the contractile movement greater the strength of contraction allows Q to decrease I The greater the blood ow the more 02 you can deliver to the tissues the more you can extract from the hlood circulating to the tissues the more you can extract the more you can consume 0 Venus Return INCREASES I The amount of blood returned to the heart 39 Ex you return 10Lrnin you wont pump out more than 10L min I You are only going to pump out as much as you have Lmin beatsmin mLheat or Lbeat Q HR x Strengt of EDV contr action 4 Venus Return Parasympathetic Ach Sympathetic Stretch 1 Frank Starlin g
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