Lecture 10 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology
Lecture 10 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology APK3110c
Popular in Applied Exercise Physiology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Adams on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to APK3110c at Florida State University taught by Dr. Robert Moffatt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views.
Reviews for Lecture 10 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/26/15
Exercise Physiology 1010 10115 EF SV EDV Ex 72110 1 63 measures of efficiency of heart to pump blood Healthy 5065 Poor ventricular function 50 02 Content m d l J Amer 1m 1 hope a with A a o g onvierir i was loaarmu n run if upth u f Mind venous 021 1 I I u l39 I 3 H V01 C The more intense the exercise mixed venous 02 decreases because you are extracting more blood arteries Less 02 in veins Shaded area difference avOZ difference Increase V02 more 02 needed V02 2 Q x aVOZdiff Venous return to the heart 4 Mechanisms f i One way value encourages flow of blood back to the heart Muscle that surrounds them and the musclepumping activity when you do any movement contractiverelation allows blood to ow back to the heart A significant amount ofpressure greater than blood pressure Respiratory pump Pressure differences moves the air abdominal and thorax have opposite pressures o All deals with pressure differences You create a pressure gradient when you breathe When you inhale thoracic pressure decreases when you inhale thoracic pressure returns the movement of air High in thoracic Low in abdominal and vice versa always opposites to force blood hack into the heart 0 Exercise Physiology APKB 1 1 Us 10 10115 39 When you take air into the lungs take a breath pressure in the thorax is less than pressure in the ambient air 0 That decrease in thoracic pressure allows blood to move from the abdominal cavity with higher pressure to out of the bronchial cavities into the thoracic cavity quot important for heavy intense activity o Glycolytic component in muscles 39 Several different muscles involve diaphragm intercostal muscles sternocleidomastoid etc 0 Have a huge influence on pressure differences 39 A way we can continuously move blood 4 Venoconstrictionr constricting veins reflexing response that encourages that drainng ofthe blood from the muscles important because it reduces the volume of capacity 4 changes pressure and then encourages the flow of blood back to the heart Allowing an increase the oxygen consumption quotshunting of the bloodquot or blood flow redistribution 39 We can increase oxygen with shunting 1020 times greater than rest 39 Cardiac Output must increases for you to do this but there is also a pretty dramatic shift where blood goes 39 2 things can happen that control the distribution or redistribution of BF Dilation or constriction of the EV arteries or veins 39 Dilation of the vein of the working muscles becomes important 9 any artery that leads to a tissue has a greater metabolic demand for oxygen 0 Constriction of blood vessels in the tissues other than working muscles is important 0 Think about it o Ex if you are bicycling at a 20 mph pace You have decrease metabolic demands in the legs 399 it doesn t make much sense to have a lot ofblood flowing to the arms You prioritize Your body makes those adjustments 39 That shift redistribution occurs to shift will take place that encourages more blood flow to the muscles tissues that actually need the blood 139 What we might expect to see with respect to blood flow to working muscles o Plotting blood flow against exercise from rest to mas o If we looked at the response or flow of blood from low point to a more intense point o Mean arterial blood flow would be an average between the pulse pressure Exercise Physiology APK31 1040 10115 39 Has to do with the muscle pumping activity 0 Contract and re lax Q When they contract you find that the ow of blood drops off And when they relax they the flow of blood increases Will continue to do this until it hits the max amount of blood So pumping at rest we can anticipate SmL 100 g of muscle muscle distribution at rest quot39 During heavy exercise we may see values increasing to about 75mL 100 g of muscle 3915 BF lmLlco aF muscle I This may represent as much as 85 of blood 539 39k 39 ow F i 39 39 39 39 l quotl 3 You go from about 15 at rest and it increases malt a considerable amount to 85 at mas o Metabolic demand for oxygen is greater Elevated EP to working muscles are caused by a couple of different factors 1 Muscle pumping activity 2 increase of ow of blood or cardiac output 1 o Creates pressure dramatically increases the volume ow of blood due to circulation 0 You will see the opportunity of more blood to be pushed towards the working muscles 0 You will see dilatation ofin the arteries leading to the skeletal muscle that have a high metabolic demand 0 And constriction of the arterial that leads to the arms that don39t have a high metabolic demand 3 Relaxation of the smooth muscle that surrounds the capillary beds arterials that lead to the capillaries o Venous and arterial side 0 You have these muscles dots around these capillary beds that control the flow ofblood 0 These activity of these smooth muscles or capillary sphincters will change predicated on metabolic demand 39 At rest you find that blood flow in this region probably only means that you have to have one of these capillary beds open The others are shut to satisfy your blood ow and oxygen needs 39 From rest to a heavier form ot activity9 blood ow increases metabolic demand begins to change and things become disrupted o Muscle will contract push out excess amounts of Potassium o All have an effect on the capillary sphincters 9 the friction of constant contraction relation causes heat increase in H ions decrease in pll hypoxia etc Vei n Exercise Physiology APKBllOil 10115 When the capillary sphincters relax blood flows freely into the capillary sphincters locally controlled 0 Monitored by the different effects 0 The capillary sphincters are locally controlled through the disruption of metabolism or increased contraction that alters the biochemistry 39 important Most people have about 6 quarts ofblood in your body lfall the blood Vessels in the circulatory system were open or dilated and at the same time veins and arteries didn t constrict you only have the capacity to hold about 1520 quarts ofblood o So what you have and what the capacity is dramatically different o IF that was the case all ofthe blood vessels being dilated you would probably go into circulatory shock I Just like when people in the military are standing for a long time they go on their toes a little bit to keep their blood circulating in their body Blood Flow to the viscera 39 Blood flow to the viscera liver kidneys intestine when we are exercising He doesn t need a lot 39 You literally can REDUCE the flow ofblood when you are exercising in the visceral tissues by 8 still gets plenty gets what it needs 0 Blood should be sent to a level of high priority I Coronary BF blood flowing into the coronary arteries nerves muscles itself 0 We know that the blood flow through the heart increase because of cardiac output 1 Heart is like any muscle demands energy oxygen nutrients for it to function 0 Anticipate it will lNCREASE 5 6 greater than at rest I Fart of the whole blood flow redistribution 39 BF to the lungs INCREASES needs 02 BF to the brain STAYS SAME in terms of but INCREASES in terms of volume it gets what it needs unlike that liver kidney where we can dictate if they need it or not o All that signaling that goes on in the brain to maintain control of our environment or the event is very important o If BF increases by 50 to the legs BF to the brain will increase that much as well because it controls all these actions 39 BF to the skin ECREASES and then INCREASES 0 increases because it s a mechanism where we dissipate heat 0 If we plot blood flow in the skin from rest to heavy exercise we will see a decrease and then an increase a 239 95 BF 00 a mrdiae 5 7quot ll Exercise Physiology APKSIIDl 10115 Why do we see this occur Takes a while to accumulate heat with timeeffort Once this decrease occurs to gather the heat it needs you will start to see an increase o lNCREASES ow of blood Takes warm blood from the core of the body brain heart etc to the skin at which at a point we create sweat and when sweat evaporates we create heat removes heat from the body 0 ONLY when seat evaporates is when we create heat 0 Changing that into a gas is what removes the heart from the body Ke v D rga n S Re I el M u so i e Wl Plotting blood ow percentage of cardiac output vs V02 Comparing the BF to the organs vs the BF to the skeletal muscles 1585 Usually see about 15 of BF in the skeletal muscle at rest and see about 85 of RF in the organs at rest With heavy exercise they switch 0 Shunting of the bloocl from an area of low priority to an area of high priority occurs TQ 1 V02 Exercise Physiology APK31 10110 10115 HR 5V T Skeletal muscle blood ow I Vasodilation r TSympathetic H activity 1 Vasoconstriction l Parasympathetic activity Venus quot Return if T Skeletaln luscle activity T Respiration Exercise Physiology APKSl 10qu 10115 Pl emodyjna mics the study of the systole wall that is governed byrthe ow of blood 39 MAP and R are the two hemodynamic factors that will dictate Cardiac output a a what cardIac output receives many one place in the body Q 2 102 avgzdiff 39 BP the pressure observed throughout the walls in the blood 39 vessels Q 2 MAP R o It is the force the moves blood through the circulatory system Q E HR X 5V 0 That s what the body is all about 39 R 5 Peripheral Resistance things that resist the flow of blood 0 Antagonistic but its that will compromise cardiac output 3395 mmHg 20 minHg 39 We have a vessel with a pressure at 35 mmHg on the left and 20 mnng on the right 9 pressure will flow left to right Q Will ALWAYS flow from a higher pressure to a lower pressure quot E o SBP contraction of the ventricles top curve 0 DBP relaxation of the ventricles bottom curve 1quot 39 Aorta and the large arteries are in diastole to keep the pressure it needs to encourage the ow of blood to the i 03 systems I mm 7 o V More blood increase the pressure of the system 39 Capillaries NQT elastic one single layer of endothelium mm 9 j cells 0 You don t want to encourage the flow of blood in the capillaries because this is the cite where nutrients are exchanged 0 We not only have very laminar smooth flow to the 2mm capillaries we also have the RBCs which contain r 39 oxygen l I I W I I 74 39 As you get from the large vessels to the small vessels by 7 g 39 39 quot399 39 i T 39 l r the heart you will see a pressure change from 103 cap Han we minilg to about 192 mmHg a lot to a little Lat mg l 39 As exercise more pressures go up vein 0 Because of the decreasing ilow ofblood and because of dilation and constriction of the vessel Exercise Physiology APK31 1040 10115 Resistance is the flow of blood created by friction in blood and the wall of the blood vessel 0 Friction will be increased and it is related to how it will come in contact with the walls of the blood vessels What increases friction 0 Whatever increases friction will increase resistance 391 Viscosity of the blood 0 Viscous or thick I Ex you take Heinz and llnnts ketchup Heinz will flow slower because it is thicker Q Can be changed something you add to the blood 9 by adding proteins more RBC etc 9 which INCREASES the thickness of the blood o increases the thickness increases the friction Length of EV surface area Diameter of the EV 0 Most influential factor 0 D ECREASING the diameter INCREASES frictional resistance 0 More surface area Greater portion of blood will come in contact with the wall I Elasticity plays a factor in the diameter 0 There is an inverse relationship between diameter ofblood flow and peripheral resistance I NM N2 change in diameter 5 Es take a EV that s 4mm and reduce it to a B V that s 2mm 2mm change or N Mi ZXZXZXZ 16 We have taken take the blood vessei and increase the resistance 16 times you have impacted the flow ofblood by increasing the resistance by 16 fold 0 Very subtle changes in the diameter ofthe vessels could cause changes in a very significant magnitude