Lecture 11 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology
Lecture 11 notes: APK3110c - Applied Exercise Physiology APK3110c
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Adams on Monday October 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to APK3110c at Florida State University taught by Dr. Robert Moffatt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Exercise Physiology APKBilZlDill 10615 Redistribution of ow of blood flow from areas of low to high priority I F low of blood result of you dilating or constricting the blood vessels 39 Inverse relationship between the diameter and the flow of blood or amount of blood that runs to that blood vessel 0 Cardiac Output 9 Q MAPR 0 Peripheral Resistance for maximal exercise PQ I Peripheral RESIStanCB R 0 At rest we have a MAP of 90 and Q of 5 beatsmin 9 R z 1839 mmHgmin 20 39 At maximal energy we have a MAP of 130 mmHg and a Q of 30 beatsmin 399 R Zll mrnllg min 39 What we see 0 At rest R is high and in maximal activity R becomes really low quot We are talking about the importance of reducing resistance to the ow of blood to maximize the volume of blood into a region 39 39 o Commonly see this in skeletal muscle i V A h quotg 7 7 ALA Overtime when metabolism increases above I D W may rest you will see common changes in the resistance in the ow of blood V02 2 min Mean arterialwpressure in response to work maximumheavy exercise 39 MAP increases with increase of metabolism by increasing the work Pmdllced buy increasing the oxygen consumption X 17 m Systolic Blood Pressure M ea n Arte rial Pressure l i a t i l i c B l o od P i s u re Systolic Pressure INCREASES the flow of blood out of the heart 0 Systolic pressure changes because of an increase of pressure which increases the flow ofblood to the heart 39 Diastolic Pressure doesn t change 0 Veryminimal effect DECREASES in R in response to dilation more blood will drain From the arteries from the arterioles into the capillaries 39 MAP change by vulture of an increase in systolic I 7 a a a pressure where diastolic pressure maybe holds R6 max firm ground around 80 mmHg E Exercise Physiology APKB 1 O 1 1 10615 Plow gas is transported in the blood How gas is exchanged at the membranes simple diffusion high to low concentration 0 Simple diffusion allows 02 to move along its pressure gradient high 9 low Q Minute ventilation one minutes worth of breathing 39 Purpose of ventilating load the blood with oxygen also to get rid of some metabolic factors CO 2 H ions 0 When you breath you breath for that sole purpose 0 Breathing dynamics change the rate of breathin g changes and minute ventilation changes as you perform more and more activity 39 issue ofexchange and process ofdiffusion o Load takes place at the alveolar capillary membrane load the blood with oxygen 0 Unloading of oxygen takes place at the tissue capillary membrane pick up carbon dioxide 39 Capillaries are one single layer of epithelial cells importance it puts the RB Cs in extremely close proximity to its heart or place where the gas is exchanged 39 Gas moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a process of diffusion the more concentrated the more pressure it exerts o In order for a gas 02 to move out of lungs into the blood concentrationpressure has to be higher in the lungs than in the blood And as the blood reaches the tissue skeletal muscle you must also think that the concentrationpressure ofOZ in the blood must be greater than in the tissue moves from a higher to a lower pressure 0 The concentrationpressure ofC02 must be greater in the tissue than it is in the blood to take it back to the lungs and the concentration pressure of C02 must be greater in the lungs than it is in the alveolar high 1 low pressure 39 Remember Gas can move along a concentrated and pressure gradient Partial Pressure of Gas oxygen and C02 9 PgasPoZ expressed in mmHgl 39 Most interested in the PP ofOZ and C02 39 Partial pressure of a gas that moves the gas 0 PP ofOZ moves 02 and the PP of 02 moves C02 02 never moves C02 and vice versa quot What do we know about gases 0 Compressible 17 made up of molecules that are moving when they move they bump into things when they collide and concentration is greater the greater the collisions the greater the pressure 0 Exercise Physiology APK311011 10615 Pressure is depended on the number ofcollisions and therefore the number of meieculesThe sreater thenumbsrofccmeiecuies the greater the number of collisions the greater the pressure 39 We can calculate PF 0 0 Need to know the concentration of a gas All gases combined 2 Barometric pressure 939 in uenced by humidity and where you are on the planet I But everyplace has a barometric pressure Barometric pressure the sum total of all the gases in that environment 1 Dalton s law the sum total of PP the sum pressure The PP ofthe gas depends on the total barometric pressure and the fractional concentration of the gas Barometric Pressure 0 2 O 1 39 At sea level Pb 760 mmng 39 Canister filled with oxygen 3 1 139 39 Calculation oFPP ofa gas P02 Pb x Fe Fe frational concentration ota gas 39 P02 760 s 1 760 mmHg N 1 1 0 N1quot 39 Determine What the PP of those gases are l 39 1 Daltonfs Law N 1 em 760 x 020 152 N g N 1 1 Phil 760 x 080 i 6081 Pb 15239 see 760 01 N N 139 5 N a Di 1 Exercise Physiology APKBTll li 10615 I The partial pressure of that gas moves that gas ex PP of 02 moves 02 no other gas Whatever happens to the barometric pressure will have a bearing on the PP of the gas 0 Ex when we go in altitude the barometric pressure goes down j will influence PP ofthe gas The PP of the gas does change but the barometric pressure does change significantly 39 Because the fractional concentration of that gas never changes but the barometric pressure changes significantly 39 What physiological things can be affected 0 When the air you would inhale is taken into the lungs you will see pretty substantial changed in the PP of a gas 939 trachea PP decreases in 1015 minilg because of moisture lungs PP increase I lfyou determine the PP ofOZ in the lungs at 100 mmHg going to be greater than the PP of the blood that comes into the lungs at 40 mmHg 0 C02 is dramatically less Lungs 40 mmHg Tissues 46 mmlig blood coming into the lungs in tissueblood I Substantial changes in PP of a gas 9 trachea 159 mmi lg lungs 100 mm Hg Gastrans ort I Gas is transported by blood Blood function of the circulatory system is to transport gases blood serves as the vehicle and the circulatory system fvessels serve as the highway How blood ispiclted up and transported 0 Hemoglobin molecule made up of proteins proferrin compounds and a mineral called iron I Oxygen loves Pe if you can fully saturate the hemoglobin 02 combining with all the Fe consistently each gram of hemoglobin has the ability to transport 134 mL of 02 constant 39 Oxyhe moglobin transports 985 96 of oxygen 02 binds to Hgb 24 dissolves in the plasma 39 Hemoglobin levels are vital for maximization of oxygen transport lfyou have 15g of hemoglobin how much 02 can you transport per 100 ml of water 15g x 134 mL ofiDZ 201 mL of02 Assuming that you are completely saturated I Oxygen carrying capacity how much 02 you can actually carry Exercise Physiology APllt3110 11 10615 When you begin exercise tissues become in need of proper hydration Take liquid from plasma to keep cells hydrated 0 Changes the ratio of RBCs to the blood itself plasma 0 Artificially increasing the concentration of RBCs bc you are not pulling out the RECr just the liquid9 see an increase of how much 02 can be delivered 39 Ex lfyou have 10 hernoconcentra tion and your hemoglobin is 15 So 10 ofthat would be 15 15 15 2 165 x134 39 Rises from 201mm ofDZ to 2211 mm of02 Shift that happens in your body when after a few minutes of exercise 3939 Hemoconcentration pulling liquid out ofthe plasma into the cell artificially changing the concentration of ratio of Hgb to 02 o you can deliver more 02 you have more to extract if you extract more you have to consume more lfyou consume more then you have the ahilityto preform faster for longer 0 02 carrying capacity is z 134 x hemoglobin Hg bl Hgb 02 HgbOZ 39 Does it make a difference in the lab yes in competition no 39 Saturation in hemoglobin wOZ 9 SOZ quot 00 Saturation amount of oxygen that has actually been combined with hemoglobin the 02 carrying capacity 0 S02 1020 50 I There are several places along the circulatory system when 502 changes 1 Abrupt change as blood enters exits the tissue 39 Several factors that will effect saturation of Hgb w oxygen 1 pH effect on how much 02 on hemoglobin 2 PP ofCOZ 3 Temperature 4 PP ofOZ 9 most influential ofall four factors Exercise Physiology APKBllD ll 10615 Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve P01 n55 Red line you can see the curve is kind of odd A m39 Elquot l I 9 Sshaped J 9 o Rises and then at 80 mmHg it levels off 00 39 39quot 39 3910 o Shape is important V x m 02 Carry i1 7 10C mml lg ofOZ in the lungs 601 ED c 7 p Q a which means blood mores Pam 7 through the lungs picks up 02 g i 391 m0 and PP of arterial blood is 100 I 7 7 3 mmll g as it delivers to the tissue km BUHEEFFECT 1 Arterial Blood P02 e 100 mmHg 7 q quot Venus B P02 at the skeletal muscle3 40 20 39 l quot mmHg 391 i I 7 i 0 You can see how easily the diffusion of a 20 Vg u 0 e a We llama 02 takes place into the cell of the msz Am rmly skeletal muscle PO 2 m m 3 0 Relationship between P02 and saturation o Loading of blood ifyou measure the PP of OZ in the alveolar sacks 9 100 mmHg 0 Look at the blood going into the lungs passes through the alveolar capillaries you will see the PP of 02 in that blood is less high 399 low 0 The blood that exits the lungs into the pulmonary veins back into the ventricles is going to be fully saturated and represents the left side of the heart or arterial blood 0 You have blood coming in at 100 mmng V02 and it is easy to see how that gas can diffuse from the blood into the cell 39 Relationship between P02 and 02 carrying capacity 0 You can go to the PP ofClZ at 100 mmHg to 80 mmHg and still not compromise someone s oxygen ow to the blood 39 Would be important for places with different elevations O The steep portion at 40 mmHg you can see that it is about 7 saturated but then 50 02 capacity I Not only fully saturated but partially saturated and no longer carries 20 mL but now it carries 15 mL which tells you have extracted 5 mL 2 indication ofavOZdiff I lMPORTAl lT You can see decreases in barometric pressure that influence the PP of the gas 02 and you don t have dramatic losses in your ability to saturate or carry 02 39 Very subtle changes in PP at the cell influence dramatic changes in what you can extract Exercise Physiology APK3110511 10615 39 Exercise Increases temperature Increases H ions increases C02 tension 0 Curve shifts to the right Bohr Effect 1 PP ofOZ remains the same in the cell at 40 mmeg no effect on the shift 0 Exercising heavily loading as much as we could ifwe were loading at rest and still carrying 20 mL 9 BUT because of the shift there are increase in enzymes to do that activity I Again you have extracted more 9 indication of avDZdiff 39 Starts out w 20 goes up to 7 5 extracted 13 mL 0 important in regards to where you are on the planet different altitudes