October 21, 23, & 26 Notes
October 21, 23, & 26 Notes Hist 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeri Horner on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at Radford University taught by Mary C Ferrari in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see World History to 1500 in History at Radford University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Roman Problems in 300 Diocletian Ruled 284 305 Divided Empire Tetrarchy Constantine Constantinople Arianism Council of Nicaea Pope Patriarch Rome was pretty stable for 200 years by 300 stability gone Constant Civil Wars Emperors only lasted a few months at a time these were called Barbarians started coming in and taking over Epidemics started coming in Agriculture was down Inflation was nearly 100 284CE305CE very strong ruler decides empire is too big and divides it into two parts he ruled this side had a Byzantium Ruler Each ruler had two assistants and this was called a When there is inflation like that very hard to counteract Installed price controls can t cost more than this Diocletian thinks Roman Gods are mad at him which accelerated the prosecution of Christians they are hugging each other and facing different directions which means they are working together while handling their own sections Replaces Diocletian and comes to power in 312 at which time he made Christianity the official religion He did not fully have power so the symbol was a P with an X on top so He put that symbol on all his army people and won the battle Division between East and West was permanent This creates a power vacuum back in Rome They had no Emperor but had religious leadership in the Pope Constantine built all kinds of churches called Basilica there is one in DC Religious controversy 9 the idea that Jesus as a God is not equal to a God There is a God and there is a Jesus Jesus is not the trinity Constantine didn t buy it but the locals did Held a meeting called the that resulted in the which was Jesus is the same substance as God Fully human fully God in charge of the church and he is the The political leadership in Constantinople is the Patriarch answers to the political leader so the Church is actually a branch of the government They didn t have any of this in Rome so the Pope took on role in political leadership Becomes a political authority Pope never loses the political authority and he is able to create laws and have armies Develops its own body of law called If a Priest gets into trouble he goes to a Church Court not a legal court Trade Stability of Roman Kush Han empires dependent on Silk Road for their trade networks All along the Silk Road route were little oasis towns Routes divide and meet up in India had ports to Persian Gulf Palmyra where ISIS is currently destroying stuff It was a very long route one person cannot go the whole route by himself Sea option started in China South China Sea through isthmuses to India These big classical societies kept pirates at bay They were able to trade to the Indian Ocean where the currents change with the seasons Water route gets to Mediterranean Sea and likewise so big no one ship did this whole route alone From China they got silk cinnamon and ginger India spices pepper and sesame oil Neither India nor China had good enough environments for horses so they imported them Woolen textiles jewelry And also conveniently Bubonic Plague because of the rats on the ships smallpox and measles which can be deadly under the right circumstances These three will cause Europe China and India to lose 1A to 13 of their population Fall of the Roman Empire in Latin simply not the barbarians we think about when we hear that word New invaders bring new culture so they are not entirely bad s came from Russia and went to Italy and Spain and took up farming and completely absorbed Roman culture moved into Great Britain intermixed with Romans Other invaders show up when Roman Empire is already weak so they couldn t absorb them invade Great Britain and Celts moved into Ireland and Scotland Most groups come after 3OOCE German groups are invading because Attila the Hun is right behind them they were pretty much escaping Attila They used war elephants in this process Invaded Europe in 451 CE they too managed to get elephants over the Alps The movement of Huns greatly destroys every place they go Western Empire finally collapses in 4766E Eastern part still okay under Byzantium Empire Han Dynasty dies during Pax Romana 25220 Rich were getting richer getting out of paying taxes and being exempt from work projects which puts all the burden on the poor Had full scale Marxian uprising against the rich They also had trouble with disease famine and natural disasters And the result was the rulers couldn t get anyone rich or poor to pay taxes China becomes decentralized 300 year period of this is called One of the things that changes with no centralized government is that this is when Buddhism takes root and becomes popular Mahayana Buddhism is the one in which they believe Buddha actually is a God had Bodhisattvas This form of Buddhism also goes to Japan and Korea sort of went up and over following the Silk Road Oasis towns people stop to spend the night in these places and they become in a sense Buddhist Shrines They carved Buddha on the outside of the caves and found books on the insides of them Buddhism as a religion stresses kindness which is why it was so popular in China during all the chaos Really stresses honor and family but to become a monk one must lose his surname and disconnect from his family It was a hard sell but even so they were willing to do it Women became nuns to escape marriage China becomes predominantly Buddhist Sue Dynasty 589CE618CE Yang Jian Centralized Government Grand Canal South China Tang Dynasty 618CE907CE Army Uighurs Government exams Eunichs Yang Jian Founder of Sui Dynasty Centralized government control Assigned government jobs at the local level Competitive written exams like civil service tests had to pass this exam in order to pick officials Sui fought with Turks Built Grand Canal which connected Yellow River to the Yangtze River Had massive public works projects Massive trade in Southern China so connecting those two rivers along with the Silk Road helped them economically China s was due to the canal Taken over by By 7506E they were in the height of economics and culture to fight in their armies these were called Better militarily because they were good at hand to hand combat Hiring these outside people enabled Tang to keep their own people at home in the fields which helped exponentially in agriculture Went back to Confucianism had to take exam at age 17 began learning the material at age 3 and this was ONE test They had to know all sorts of stuff like Confucian texts government had to know intimately how to write poetry State sponsored schools where even poor kids could go Others went to Buddha Schools Most people failed the test but if they passed it then the interviews would start Had to be skilled in math and calligraphy legal knowledge etc If they failed they were still very highly educated but couldn t get government jobs which is where most Buddhist Monks came from castrated male castrated themselves voluntarily in order to get government jobs They won t set up your family and they won t mess with your women which means they won t produce any dynasties so they were safe to be in government jobs They have about 4500 Eunuchs in the government they answer to each other They had a Chief Eunuch and they each kept checks and balances on each other Two women rose to power during Tang Dynasty who was born into a noble family had access to good education and was a really good musician She was recruited as a concubine mistress to the Emperor but fell in love with his son Convinced the son to ditch his wife and marry her He gets sick a lot and eventually dies at which point Wu takes control of government and rules for 30 years China moved forward under Wu but she was hateful and would kill off her opposition Her son replaced her and his son replaced him He in turn got caught up with who had an affair with I who led a revolt in 755CE From 755 on Uighurs start asking for favors which eventually weakens Tang Dynasty Chang an is the big city in the Tang Dynasty walled city in which 2 million people lived The wall was 6 miles by 5 miles and inside the wall was about 100 other walled communities each of which was locked at night 13 were foreigners with all kinds of different religions but had 91 Buddhist temples They were very good with stone wear and colors This was the height of Chinese literature and economy Partly agriculture but mostly trade due to the Grand Canal Tang Dynasty gave everyone land called and it was based on family structure and circumstances They could only pass on 15 of their land per family to their children and had to give some of it back to the Dynasty when they no longer needed it So they would get say about seven acres if they had five kids each kid would get one acre and then the government would get one acre too They profit from their work and use fertilizer Produced dishes and had so much of it it was appropriately and simply called China and it is to this day very popular in the rest of the world They also produce gunpowder They expand their industrial and agricultural bases and eventually people figured out ways of getting out of giving their land back This is how rich people wind up with so much land and why they had their own armies Buddhism still very popular with temples everywhere and in keeping with Buddhist tradition they expect sacrifice money So people gave money to the monks which in turn helped them to bankroll lots of money and land so the monasteries became banks where they would lend it out to other people