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First Week of Lecture Notes for Exam 4

by: Kelsi Rau

First Week of Lecture Notes for Exam 4 MCB2000

Marketplace > University of Florida > Microbiology > MCB2000 > First Week of Lecture Notes for Exam 4
Kelsi Rau

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About this Document

These notes cover the Lectures that we will be tested on in Exam R
Dr. Asghari
Class Notes
micro, Microbiology, Asghari, Lecture, notes, Exam 4
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsi Rau on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCB2000 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Asghari in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 03/25/16
Thursday, April 14, y MCB2000­ Exam Four Lecture Notes Agents Used to Treat Fungal Infections Selective toxicity­ where are the weakest parts of the bacteria/organism to attack ­ ­ Cell wall is made of peptidoglycan, humans don ’t have that, very good target,  Penicillin based antibiotics do this  ­ Protein Synthesis­ translation, good target, both use ribosomes, Human ribosomes  are different, Eukaryotic Ribosome is different that Prokaryotic, good target as well ­ Metabolic Activities­ both perform Krebs cycle, Glycolsis, electron transport system,  shared, antimetabolites­ compounds given to the patient that don ’t harm the host ­ Folic acid­ required to make DNA and RNA, everyone must use one way or another,  Human bodies don't make this, we get it from the outside, Bacteria make their own  folic acid­ good to target ­ ­ sulfur drugs target metabolic activities  DNA/RNA molecules­ transcription, replication, making DNA and making RNA, drugs  ­ against this replication  ­ Cell Membrane­ fungi have some differences from other Eukaryotes, cannot use  penicillin against them, don’t have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, good target  against Fungi­ Ergosterol­ Azoles­ synthesis of Ergosterol, Polyenes­ target the  structure of Estergol, Amphotericin B­ most common anti­fungal Drug Actions of Antiviral Drugs ­ Obligate Intracellular Pathogens­ go inside cell, take over, use their machinery  ­ More difficulty with viruses than anything else ­ Try to treat symptoms, Supportive Therapy­ doesn't cure the disease itself Prevent penetration and entry into the host, need to understand the receptor ­ 1 Thursday, April 14, y ­ Stop the un­coding­ good target  Targeting the release of Nucleic Acid inside the host  ­ ­ Prevent the Virus from Assembly: ­ HIV infection­ RNA virus­ must be converted into DNA­ get into the host chromosome The enzymes RT takes RNA and makes DNA out of it, only Retroviruses have this  ­ (HIV), RT is a great Target, Drug called RT Inhibiter­ prevents Enzyme from doing its  job ­ Tamiflu­ block the entry of the Virus by interfering with the fusion of the virus with the  cell membrane of the host, stop the release of the virus from getting out and  spreading, prophylaxis of the Flu ­ Structure Analong­ looks like the nucleotides but doesn't function properly, against  herpesvirus  ­ Riboviron­ hemorrhagic fever, against Hep RT inhibitors­ most famous is AZT ­ ­ Drug of choice against reverse transcriptase, against HIV is protease inhibiters,  second drug against HIV, protease is an enzyme, prohibits the virus from packaging  the protein and making more viruses, prevent the virus from synthesizing its nucleic  acid  ­ Not a lot of choices of treatments against viruses Mechanisms of Drug Resistance ­ B­ Lactam Ring­ Penicillin based antibiotics  possible to pump the drug out, change the target from getting in, modify the drug,  ­ bypass your pathway and go through a detour ­ goal is to not let the drug effect your processes­ by prohibiting the drug from binding,  having it pave another road, stopping it from the blocked pathway 2 Thursday, April 14, y ­ when you take antibiotics your immune system relies on the Normal Flora­ microbial  antagonism, your bacteria prevents other bacteria from establishing residence in your body, they cover up your processes (sexual organs, intestines, skin, colon) ­ taking antibiotics decreases your normal flora, if you discontinue it your body will  replenish and repopulate it some food comes with some bacteria that helps you repopulate­ Probiotics, yogurt ­ ­ antimicrobial agents don ’t work for all diseases because not all diseases are caused  by microbes Chemotherapeutics­ refers to all chemicals you take to protect you against all types  ­ of diseases, heart medicine, blood pressure medicine, help with your own physiology ­ antibiotics­ chemicals against bacterial ­ antimicrobials­ against all microbes that cause infection  ­ MIC­ minimum inhibitory concentration, lowest amount of drug that kills or stops  microbes from growing, needed for drug companies to decide how much the want  you take and how many times a day­ the regimen, less than MIC­more than MIC­  neither will work Immune System ­ designed to protect against all things coming at us ­ a network of vessels that run around the whole body ­ made of cells, organs, supporting molecules ­ Lymphatic system­ location of immune system, sucks all free liquid back into the  system, collects the free liquid around the body,  “storm drain”, organs, tissues,  vessels 3 Thursday, April 14, y ­ elephant foot disease­ where lymphatic tissue is blocked so the free liquid is not  circulating back, the body swells and makes more skin to compensate, keeps  growing and becomes twice­three times the size, inability to recycle/collect the liquid ­ microbes attack us, compounds from outside come in, our own cells can become  cancerous, cuts and bruises  divide the host immune system into components ­ ­ Innate: non­specific (doesn ’t care if the infection is bacterial, viral, what type of either, it provides protection non specifically), components include dividing into lines of  defense first and second, born with this, responds always the same way­fever­ inflammation ­ First line of defense­ skin, mucous membrane, surface protection, enzymes,  molecules ­ Second line of defense­ phagocytosis, physically eat and remove the infection,  inflammation, pain, swelling, redness, warm touch, fever, complement proteins ­ Acquired: specific (looks to see what type of infection­ viral?­ then what type­ hepatitis?), these components develop over time­ if you never get exposed to flu virus you will never develop protection against it, Third layer Third layer/line of defense­ cells and supporting molecules as well, main­ B cells and  ­ T cells ­ There is cooperation between the Innate and the Acquired immune systems, always  need the first­second­third line of defenses against infections, there is separate work  for each one but there is also overlap for each of them ­ Anatomical Defenses: ­ Skin­ low pH, sweat, lysozyme­ enzyme that kills bacteria, salt, normal flora that  prevents other bacteria from establishing an infection ­ Saliva and Tears  4 Thursday, April 14, y ­ Stomach­ acidity Intestinal Enzymes­ bile salts, kill bacteria  ­ ­ Kidney­ steril ­ Bladder­ contains some bacteria, urinating gets rid of bacteria­ holding your bladder  is not good­ can cause bacteria to travel up and cause kidney infection  ­ Cilia­ short appendages, cover trachea, can become inactivated by viral infection­  makes you prone to secondary bacterial infection ­ Upper Respiratory­ job to trap particles before they reach the lung  ­ Lymph nodes­ under armpits, neck area, groin, midsection, liquid pass through these  and detect infection Blood Components ­ all blood components come from the Bone Marrow ­ Stem Cells­ raw molecule or dough that can be shaped into anything you want, can  make red/white/platelets  ­ all blood components come from bone marrow, stem cells in bone marrow, all  components that run the blood come from bone marrow­ red, white, platelets ­ platelets­ involved in blood clot, prevents you from bleeding to death, can leave blood and come out in the open, free liquid ­ red blood cells­ erythrocytes, carry oxygen around, leaves heart and comes back,  circulation process, remain in the blood ­ white blood cells­ leukocytes, involved in the immune system, free liquid 5


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