First Week of Lecture Notes for Exam 4
First Week of Lecture Notes for Exam 4 MCB2000
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsi Rau on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCB2000 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Asghari in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Thursday, April 14, y MCB2000 Exam Four Lecture Notes Agents Used to Treat Fungal Infections Selective toxicity where are the weakest parts of the bacteria/organism to attack Cell wall is made of peptidoglycan, humans don ’t have that, very good target, Penicillin based antibiotics do this Protein Synthesis translation, good target, both use ribosomes, Human ribosomes are different, Eukaryotic Ribosome is different that Prokaryotic, good target as well Metabolic Activities both perform Krebs cycle, Glycolsis, electron transport system, shared, antimetabolites compounds given to the patient that don ’t harm the host Folic acid required to make DNA and RNA, everyone must use one way or another, Human bodies don't make this, we get it from the outside, Bacteria make their own folic acid good to target sulfur drugs target metabolic activities DNA/RNA molecules transcription, replication, making DNA and making RNA, drugs against this replication Cell Membrane fungi have some differences from other Eukaryotes, cannot use penicillin against them, don’t have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, good target against Fungi Ergosterol Azoles synthesis of Ergosterol, Polyenes target the structure of Estergol, Amphotericin B most common antifungal Drug Actions of Antiviral Drugs Obligate Intracellular Pathogens go inside cell, take over, use their machinery More difficulty with viruses than anything else Try to treat symptoms, Supportive Therapy doesn't cure the disease itself Prevent penetration and entry into the host, need to understand the receptor 1 Thursday, April 14, y Stop the uncoding good target Targeting the release of Nucleic Acid inside the host Prevent the Virus from Assembly: HIV infection RNA virus must be converted into DNA get into the host chromosome The enzymes RT takes RNA and makes DNA out of it, only Retroviruses have this (HIV), RT is a great Target, Drug called RT Inhibiter prevents Enzyme from doing its job Tamiflu block the entry of the Virus by interfering with the fusion of the virus with the cell membrane of the host, stop the release of the virus from getting out and spreading, prophylaxis of the Flu Structure Analong looks like the nucleotides but doesn't function properly, against herpesvirus Riboviron hemorrhagic fever, against Hep RT inhibitors most famous is AZT Drug of choice against reverse transcriptase, against HIV is protease inhibiters, second drug against HIV, protease is an enzyme, prohibits the virus from packaging the protein and making more viruses, prevent the virus from synthesizing its nucleic acid Not a lot of choices of treatments against viruses Mechanisms of Drug Resistance B Lactam Ring Penicillin based antibiotics possible to pump the drug out, change the target from getting in, modify the drug, bypass your pathway and go through a detour goal is to not let the drug effect your processes by prohibiting the drug from binding, having it pave another road, stopping it from the blocked pathway 2 Thursday, April 14, y when you take antibiotics your immune system relies on the Normal Flora microbial antagonism, your bacteria prevents other bacteria from establishing residence in your body, they cover up your processes (sexual organs, intestines, skin, colon) taking antibiotics decreases your normal flora, if you discontinue it your body will replenish and repopulate it some food comes with some bacteria that helps you repopulate Probiotics, yogurt antimicrobial agents don ’t work for all diseases because not all diseases are caused by microbes Chemotherapeutics refers to all chemicals you take to protect you against all types of diseases, heart medicine, blood pressure medicine, help with your own physiology antibiotics chemicals against bacterial antimicrobials against all microbes that cause infection MIC minimum inhibitory concentration, lowest amount of drug that kills or stops microbes from growing, needed for drug companies to decide how much the want you take and how many times a day the regimen, less than MICmore than MIC neither will work Immune System designed to protect against all things coming at us a network of vessels that run around the whole body made of cells, organs, supporting molecules Lymphatic system location of immune system, sucks all free liquid back into the system, collects the free liquid around the body, “storm drain”, organs, tissues, vessels 3 Thursday, April 14, y elephant foot disease where lymphatic tissue is blocked so the free liquid is not circulating back, the body swells and makes more skin to compensate, keeps growing and becomes twicethree times the size, inability to recycle/collect the liquid microbes attack us, compounds from outside come in, our own cells can become cancerous, cuts and bruises divide the host immune system into components Innate: nonspecific (doesn ’t care if the infection is bacterial, viral, what type of either, it provides protection non specifically), components include dividing into lines of defense first and second, born with this, responds always the same wayfever inflammation First line of defense skin, mucous membrane, surface protection, enzymes, molecules Second line of defense phagocytosis, physically eat and remove the infection, inflammation, pain, swelling, redness, warm touch, fever, complement proteins Acquired: specific (looks to see what type of infection viral? then what type hepatitis?), these components develop over time if you never get exposed to flu virus you will never develop protection against it, Third layer Third layer/line of defense cells and supporting molecules as well, main B cells and T cells There is cooperation between the Innate and the Acquired immune systems, always need the firstsecondthird line of defenses against infections, there is separate work for each one but there is also overlap for each of them Anatomical Defenses: Skin low pH, sweat, lysozyme enzyme that kills bacteria, salt, normal flora that prevents other bacteria from establishing an infection Saliva and Tears 4 Thursday, April 14, y Stomach acidity Intestinal Enzymes bile salts, kill bacteria Kidney steril Bladder contains some bacteria, urinating gets rid of bacteria holding your bladder is not good can cause bacteria to travel up and cause kidney infection Cilia short appendages, cover trachea, can become inactivated by viral infection makes you prone to secondary bacterial infection Upper Respiratory job to trap particles before they reach the lung Lymph nodes under armpits, neck area, groin, midsection, liquid pass through these and detect infection Blood Components all blood components come from the Bone Marrow Stem Cells raw molecule or dough that can be shaped into anything you want, can make red/white/platelets all blood components come from bone marrow, stem cells in bone marrow, all components that run the blood come from bone marrow red, white, platelets platelets involved in blood clot, prevents you from bleeding to death, can leave blood and come out in the open, free liquid red blood cells erythrocytes, carry oxygen around, leaves heart and comes back, circulation process, remain in the blood white blood cells leukocytes, involved in the immune system, free liquid 5
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