History, Week 8&10
History, Week 8&10 HIS 121
Popular in United States History 1914-1945
Popular in History
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 121 at University of Kentucky taught by Lacey Sparks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see United States History 1914-1945 in History at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Week 8: Readings, Online Lecture, Class Notes Readings: Hitler’s Hossbach Memorandum Hossbach took notes on Hitler’s plan Hitler had secret meeting at Reich Those who opposed were removed Discussed taking Lebansraum and goals of expansion Aim of German policy= security and preservation of nation Space is a problem, can be sought naturally for 1-3 generations A. Raw Materials a. Wherever coal can be found is feasible b. Ores is more difficult, need copper and tin c. Cellular solution is possible but not permanent d. Edible fats possible B. Foods- No a. Increase of demands on soil to increase production is not possible due to soil deterioration, participation in world market is a must b. Lowering standard of living is not possible Participation of World Economy Economic need will drive Germany to expand Weakness who base existence on export Germany has weakness of food due to Britain’s naval control, only way out is greater living space Space required can only be sought in Europe Not a case of conquering people, lack of resources Germany has most favorable foundations for growing Where is greatest possible conquest at lowest cost Must recon with two enemies, England and France, who will not allow Germany’s expansion in Europe or overseas England will not release any colonial possessions Take Britain’s colonies while they no longer have possession Recognizing Britain as holding Empire unity cannot be maintained o Ireland’s tendency for independence o Constitutional disputes in India o Weakening in position (Japan) o Opposition to Italy Must not allow population to get too low if expansion occurs France is in better position geographically, but not politically; Britain, France, Russia, and Adjoining smaller states German problem can only be solved by force at great risk Left with when and how Re-arming of military As time goes by, risk of materials being out dated increased Secrecy of “special weapons” cannot be safeguarded Decrease in relative power Cannot wait in fear of food shortage Large armed forces, aging of Nazi, lowering standards of living and drop of birth rate, leaves no choice but to act no later than 1943-1945 If France goes down, action against Czechoslovakia comes Case 3 Equally possible to attack Czech. If France were at war with another state Conquer Czech and Austria at some time to avoid outside threats Once Czech is conquered, Germany-Hungary obtained Neutral attitude by Poland will help Attack by Britain without France is hardly possible Must consider that Czech defense will increase No opposition of this action is expected from Italy, but cannot be judged about Austria Measure and speed will decide Poland’s attitude Another 3 years of war is possibility Interested in continuation of war and tensions over Mediterranean Future policy to strengthen Italy Fuhrer believes Italy’s military strategy is to remain defensive against France England would go to war with Italy, and would be too occupied to fight Germany Attack on Czech based upon course of French, English, and Italian war, and would have to be fast England and France must not appear as enemies French would advance into Rhineland If Mediterranean conflict leads to generalization, they start immediately Lecture: Rise of Hitler Madde WWII even more destructive Born 1899 Possibly harsh father Member of German speaking minority in Austria Hungary Moved to Vienna for Art, shocked by city, rejected for lack of talent Spent 4 years interested in politics and how successful movements happened Obsorbed extremist ideas, moved to Germany, colunteered for Army German minority complained they were not getting enough power because of Jews Hitler followed anti-sematic culture against Jews Impressed by Mayor Karl Lueger, developing ideas on how to be successful 1913, moved to Munich Cheered declaration of war 1914 Spent 4 years on Western Fron Breathed in gas before war ended Had membership card of German Workers Party 1920 Blamed Jews for loss of war and communism Hitler could galvanized a crowd Convinced Worker Party to change its name to Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party, becoming NAZI party Tries to overthrow democratic Weimar Republic, 1923 Economy didn’t function well, 1923 went into hyperinflation German army put Hitlers uprising down, and was put to prison Remained convinced for another opportunity; wrote Mein Kamph in jail denouncing Jews, communism, other things NAZI would have to pretend to accept rules for him to become elected “Stormtroopers”of NAZI party Power started on Stock Market crash of 1929 30% of loss of jobs dependent on export Great Depression lauched Hitlers campaign 1932 Took power 1933 through majority did not bote, but no other party had majority Non competent to hold power/ good understanding Banned all other parties Put NAZI in position of leadership Mass rally festival drew crowd Germany would ignore Versailles treatey, and build army: no one intervened Boycott stores owned by Jews, expelled, banned from jobs, beaten in streets Implemented policy of terror for anti-NAZI followers, persecution of Jews Road to War Several years to go to war, but took meaesures Felt strong enough to openluy defy Versailles Treaty Germany’s military leadership worried if French walked in France was occupied Occupied Austria who welcomed NAZI although Germany would attack Munich Crisis o Hitler demanded annexation of German speaking Zcech o Neither France nor Britain ready for war o Mussolini proosed Conference o German promised not to go any farther than Czech “peace in our time” Did not stop him, preparing for more territorial gain Further demands of annexing Czech and some Lithuania Signed Nazi-Soviet Pact o 1939 o Convinces Stalin he could not trust Western o Agree to not fight each other o Britain and France had to fight Germany alone Germany invaded Poland o 1939 o Destroyed border post to get back land given after WWI Chance for Germany to show avoid bloody mess of WWI calling it Blitzkrieg invasion Used improved weapons in new way Developing air assault and motorcycle unit and armored tanks Achieve rapid offensive Total War: bombing civilian neighborhoods Going to be more brutal: deliberate brutality Expulsion of Polish to expand German farmers Reading: Hitler on war and struggle Strong survive, weak perish: rule of existence Force and power determine survival Struggle is father of all things No acheivment without breaking down reisistance 3 principles control existence of every nation 1. Purity of Blood 2. Concept of Struggle 3. Ingenuity of Individual Blood and Race Blood alone resides strength of man: like teaching poodles to be like greyhounds When crossing, offspring stand higher than racially lower parent, but not as high as higher one Such mating is contrary to nature Both superior and inferior have same possibility of overcoming because there are more inferior Result of Racial Crossing 1. Lowering level of higher race 2. Physical and intellectual regression - Culture must be preserved, blood mixture is sole cause of culture dying out The “Racial” Jew Jewish have no true culture They lack qualities which make them creative Their intellect will never have constructive effect Parasite of other Nations, forced to deny inner nature Jews are not a race but a religion is a lie Jews stealing women from their culture, lower racial level, replace democracy with dictatorship, economic and political revolutionization, refuses state for self-preservation, destroys foundation of national self-maintenance, destroys faith in leadership, scoffs history and past, drags everything to the gutter Contaminates culture and religion is ridiculed Jewish thought :Bolshevization of Germany Leadership is Primary and Decisive National Socialist task is to advocate and preserve bearer of state Realize all men are different st 1 consequence of realizing-attention to promote national community recognized as valuable More difficult to recognize minds are most valuable intellectually Most valuable thing of an invention is inventor An organization must not prevent thinking individuals No majority decisions but responsible persons Decision made by one man Authority of every leader downward, responsibility upward Responsibility by one man Class Notes Discussion on Memo Hitler was put in jail because offensive to state tried and failed to accomplish this Combined votes of both parties to win, solidify other “Beer Hall Putsch” o Hitler’s attempt to overthrow government o Gave speech over Beer Hall o Did not have military on his side Hitler’s first step o Annexes Austria o Austria was welcoming o Forbidden by Versailles Munich Conference o Czech invasion sparks conference o France and Britain did nothing but Hitler agreed no more o Want Czech all one because they’re Germans o People from Czech not invited o France and Poland have to bring military out, starting WWII Racial Anti-Semitism o Hitler against Jews o Wanted something to blame Invade Czech if France has external conflict Trying to figure out how to invade so organization was kept secret Hitler’s inspiration= Mussolini, Armenian genocide, anti-Semitism, race science Russia is communist, most Jews from Russia, reason for blame Week 10 Lecture 10A: Germany Ascendant Main Themes 1. German Conquest of Western Europe 2. Winston Churchill and British resistance 3. U.S. neutrality and engagement 4. Collaboration in Europe 5. War in Mediterranean 6. Operation Barbarossa/Soviet resistance 1 Britain and France declare war on Germany in agreement with Poland French prepared super trench system called Maginot Line Britain and France prepared Army waiting for Germans to take initiative Germany repeats Schleiffen Plan, attacking Belgium and Netherlands Br. And Fr. Went up to meet German forces German had new plan of tanks in tree line behind Br/Fr; split force in two Cut Belgium supply French civilians trying to escape 2 British manage to save soldiers, left heave weapons French agreed to Armistice with Germany: allowed Germany to occupy most of France, who had to pay Assumption of British signing armistice Winston Churchill o Prime Minister o Radio speeches Germans bombed London during Battle of Britain called The Blitz Londoners slept in subway tubes 3 Franklin Roosevelt o Signed Lend Lease Act o 1941 o Supplies sent to Allies, lending til war over Atlantic Charter o Resemble 14 Points o Statement of allied war crimes o committed U.S. o Closer to war Roosevelt allowed protection of British ships Hitler declares war on U.S. after Pearl Harbor Germany intended to use land conquered 4 Occupied core of france mad own government called vichy Head of Vichy announced France needed to learn from defeat and be more like Germans Leader agreed to help Germany wihn war; some offered French troops but was turned down 5 Mediterranean War of Mediterranean 1941-42 Distracted by adventure in Med. Major ally try to attack Libia, but British beat Italian offensive/Africa drives British back Rommel is thrust into Egypt Hitler focus on land Moved Jews to larger cities in Poland for more land German thought Soviet Union was ripe to take land S.U. did not expect to be attacked 6 Called “Operation Barbarossa” o Absolute brutality o S.U. couldn’t respond first 10 days o War between races o Jewish o Treat entire population as enemies o Behind army to kill all Jews, beginning of Holocaust o war of total destruction Stalin moved quickly to resist Germans Germans should have pleased Ukraine Soviet women were mobilized, producing weapon Soviet T-34 tank most effective in war S.U. women mobilized in combat Stalin organized units of partisan fighters interrupting Germans Red Army resisted, Germans surrounded until winter set in Russians had advantage Hitler brought majority of Europe under his control Class Notes Ardennes forest Hitler broke through Technologically advanced tanks 2= Bottle of Britain U.S. help Britain “The Blitz” continuous bombing in London, creating phrase “Keep Calm and Carry On” 5=Hitler trying to weaken Hitler bails out Italy from their fight with Britain Operation Barbarossa-Nazi attack on Soviet Union Hitler had signed not to attack, surprising Stalin Stalin was unpopular, so would have been easier to get S.U. on their side Collaborators in France o French form resistance to Hitler’s rule in France o Nazi control was called Vichy Declaring war after Pearl Harbor trying to hit them while they were down Ordinary Men: 1-15 101 are civilians acting as M.P.;s A few backed out, others didn’t in fear of being called a coward Unsure if opt. out was a trick Common chat with those they had to shoot Made Jews dig their own graves Better division of labor, 2 hour shooting, 2 off, only certain people shoot No longer 1 on 1 Bring in Soviet POW Police trying to evade hard tasks, hiding acting busy, refusing to shoot women or children, purposely misfiring Develop psycho rationalizations, killing “orphans” since they have ne parents to look after them Shift when more men get more power over CPT Trapp Men are no longer hiding because they started getting used to it During Jew killings, police conducting final round-ups Shootings become 1 on 1 again, men no longer care Lecture 10B: Holocaust Holocaust- what we call mass killing of Jews and Gypsies, 1933-1938 Isolated them and forcing them to leave country Not kill, but terrorize 1939 Had to turn in most money to leave country Polish Jews Forced into Ghettos Forced to wear armbands Phase of Mass Extermination Stat with Operation Barbarossa o Holocaust by bullets o Killing squads o Hundred of massacres o 1.5 million Jews Wannsee Conference in Berlin o 1942 o Discuss plans for extermination Nazi Death Camps New method was death camps 6 camps Most popular method was gas chamber Jews loaded in cattle cars Auschwitz, most famous camp Sent there as slave laborers Signs saying “Work will set you free” Crematoria worked to dispose bodies Death Marches Germans driven out of Poland Forced surviving Jews to camps in Germany Elie Wiesel survivor 5 million total killed Class Notes: Ordinary Men Chapter 16 Some killed by resistance movements Some go back to old lives Browning argues the policemen did not become more brutal Punishment none; 8 years in prison reduced to 3 years Trapp was executed/ death penalty because he gave orders Lower rank had less punishment/ too many people Continue to be put on trial to show people they will be punished/proving innocence to world Not punished for German crimes; attacking other countries is wrong; attacking own people Trials happening 20-30 years later Crimes were well documented to keep track of goal of goal of 0 Jews Records being destroyed in order to cover tracks/break down concentration camps Chapter 18 Men were afraid of retaliation Never an instance of punishment for refusal, yet men were in fear/ did no know what would happen; fear of violence Milgram o How people respond to authority, even if it caused pain or death o Authority left, no longer had obligation o Trust in scientists, feel as if they had knowledgeable power o Perceive situation differently without scientist in the room Motive to kill was authority figure Naive subject was influenced with other people (peer pressure) Trapp was well respected, giving him more authority as a sense of obligation Careerism played somewhat of a role in killing Harassment caused fear of isolation Perceived as being “too good”, making men try to justify for being weak Men exposed to propaganda of young men; people who it was most effective Not getting fired at, or being threatened, soldiers who fought in WWI thought killing Jews comparatively easy Violence was coming from former plans and policy