Exam 3 notes
Exam 3 notes PSYC 2010-001
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010-001 at Clemson University taught by Chong H. Pak in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Psychological Dimensions of Sound Wednesday September 30 2015 811 AM Loudness the amplitude or height ofthe sound wave Pitch Depends on the frequency ofthe sound wave o Determines how high or low a tone sounds Process of Sound 1 Sound waves collected by auditory structures a Ear tympanic membrane 2 Transduction via the cochlea a Movement of hair in the basilar membrane 3 Neural signals sent to the brain via auditory nerve Coding the Pitch of Sound 0 Place Theorv Hair cells at particular place on the basilar membrane respond to particular frequency of sound 0 Coded in terms of place to determine frequency o Best describes how we hea frequency Frequencv Matching Theorv firing rate of an auditory nerve matches a sound waves frequency o Best describefrequency Other Senses Wednesday September 30 2015 825 AM Olfaction smell 0 The only sense that does not send its messages through the thalamus o Axonsfrom neurons in the nose have a synapse in the Olfactory Bulb 0 Connectionsfrom Olfactory Bulb are especially plentiful in the amygdala Gustation Taste 0 Taste receptors are concentrated on the tongue papillae 0 Receptors can only discriminate five sensations 0 Sweet sour salty bitter umami fresh chicken Perception Monday October 5 2015 809 AM Perceptional Organization 0 Figure part of visual field that has meaning 0 Ground visual field with less meaning Edges determine the figureground border Perceptional Grouping Gestalt Laws of Organization 0 Gestaltists argued that Perceptions are not merely due to elementary sensationsthewhole is greater than the sumbecause we add meaning 0 Asked what properties of stimuli cause us to groupthem together into an object 39 Proximity 39 Similarity 39 Con nuhy 39 Closure 39 CommonRegion 39 Connectedness Depth Perception How do we perceive a threedimensional world from a twodimensional image the projection on our retina Monocular Depth Cues One Eye 39 Interposition occlusion 39 Relative Size 39 Height in the Visual Field 39 Textural Gradient I Linear Perspective 39 Reduced Clarity I Light and Shadow Binocular Depth Cues Two Eyes 39 ability of the lens to change its shape and bend light rays so that objects are in focus l I AIAAIILLIAA MIAAIA AAL l IAIJAIIJAAI n A A A IHIUllIldLIUH dUUUL Ule HIUSCIE dCLIVILy IHVUIVEU In dCCUHIHIUUdLIUH serves as one cue helping to create perception of deception 39 a depth cue resulting from rotation of the eyes so that the image can be projected on each retina A depth cue based on the difference between the retinal images received by each eye Motion Perception Optical Flow 0 The constantly changing image on the retina 39 When in motion 0 Patterns ofOptical Flow 0 Looming rapid expansions in the size ofan image so that it fills the retina o Stroboscopic Motion Tendency to perceive movement when a series of still images appear one at a time in rapid succession The perception ofobjects as constant in size shape brightness etceven when the retinal image changes Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even when changing illumination filters the light reflected by the object Context instilled by culture also alters perception Topdown Perceptual Processing Knowledgedriven perception Perception is influenced by knowledge experience etc Schemas 0 Mental representations of what we expect or what we know about situation 0 Strongly affects what we perceive BottomUp Perceptual Processing Datadriven perception Perception based only on the features ofthe stimulus Feature detectors Learning Monday October 5 2015 811 AM Brief History of Psychology 0 Early Structuralists and functionalists late 180039s 0 WundtJames 0 Behaviorists c 19201960395 o Pavlov Thorndike Watson Skinner 0 Cognitive196039stoday Overview Types of Learning 0 Nonassociativelearning 0 Associative learning 0 Classicalconditioning o Operantconditioning Learning 0 Learning is the process through which experience modifies behavior and understanding 0 We learn by o Experiencing events 0 Observing relationships between those events and o Notingthe regularity in the world around us NonAssociative Learning 0 Habhua on o The process of adapting to stimuli that do not change 0 Sensitization 0 Showing progressively larger responses following repeated presentations of stimuli Classical ConditioningAssociative Learning 0 Why do you panic when you see the cops blue lights 0 Why do you get nervous when you must speak publicly 0 These are learned responses from observing relationships in the world Pavlov Recorded the salivation ofdogs Group 1 0 Dogs presented with meat 0 They salivated Group 2 0 Dogs presented with musical tone 0 Did not salivate Second Phase 0 Pavlov paired the tone and the meat and the dog salivated 0 He paired a neutral stimulus with a natural reflex Third Phase 0 Played tone and dog salivated NOfood Continued Pairing ofthe CS with the UCS strengthens behavior EXTINCTIONAfter conditioning has occurred continually presenting the CS with no UCS eventually CR will disappear Recovery combine again behavior will return to CR Definitions Stimulus food Response salivation Unconditioned unlearned dog salivated forfood Condition learned UCR Unconditioned stimulus UCR unconditioned response CS Conditioned Stimulus CR Conditioned Response Stimulus Generalization Generalizing the stimulus to encompass more Slightly different tone forthe dog gives a different response Very different tones will have no response Stimulus Discrimination Generalization must have limits 0 Or we would be afraid ofa picture of a lion We learn to differentiate btw various stimuli Process balances with stimulus generalization 0 EX blue lights cop car panic In uence 0 Timing has to be relatively close 0 Predictability order matters 0 Signal Strength has to be loud and noticeable 0 Attention Stimulus must be paying attention Applications 0 Can lead to development of intense irrational fears of objects or situations 0 Systematic desensitization uses classical conditioning principles to treat such fears Operant Conditioning Compared to classical Wednesday October 7 2015 758 AM Classical vs Opera nt 0 the organism is learning associations between events it does not control tone salivating reflex o Classical 0 it is learning associations between its own behavior and resulting events o Operant Thorndike39s Law of Effect Ifa response made to a particular stimulus is followed by satisfaction that response is more likely to occur the next time the stimulus is present o InstrumentalConditioning o Used a puzzle box Skinner extended this idea by saying that an organism learns a response by operating on the environment o Operant Conditioning o Used a Skinner Box o Consequencesshapes behavior Basic Components of Operant Conditioning Operant a responsebehaviorthat has some effect on the world Reinforces a stimulus event that increases the probability that the operant behavior will occur again 0 Positive Reinforcer Pleasant stimulus that when given strengthens the response of it follows that response 0 Negative Reinforcer an unpleasant stimulus thatif removedstrengthen the response that removes the stimulus something bad gets taken away Forming and Strengthening Opera nt Behavior Shaping process of reinforcing successive approximations to the target behavior o Types of Reinforcers 39 Primary Reinforcers Events or stimuli that satisfy needs basic to survival 39 Secondary Reinforcers Rewards that people or animals learn to like I I Snmpfimpc rallpr l quotrnnclifinnml rpinfnrrprc I l le IVUIIIIVU VUIIIVVI VVIIVIIUIVIIVVI IVIIIIVIVVIU Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Schedule Reinforcer is delivered every time a particular response occurs 0 Partial or Reinforcement is given only some of the time Partial Reinforcement Schedules Responsebased reinforcement based on number ofdesired behaviors 0 FR fixed number of responses required for reinforcement 39 Free coffee after 10 visits 39 10th caller in a radio contest 0 VR number of response required for reinforcement varies around an average 39 Lottery gambling slot machines Timebased reinforcement based on time o FIfixed set oftime must elapse before next opportunityfor reinforcement 39 UPS delivery of your new gadget 39 Waiting foryour favorite TV show not streaming o VI time interval that must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcement I Email quotdingquot 39 Checking Facebookfor a response or comment Punishment Punishmentthe presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one following some behavior 0 Always results in a decrease in the frequency ofa response 0 Negative reinforcement versus punishment 0 Negative reinforcement always strengthens behavior 0 Punishment always weakens behavior Drawbacks of Punishments Does not quoterasequot an undesirable habit merely suppresses it 0 Must be given immediately after undesirable behavior 0 Can become aggression even abuse when given in anger Signals what is inappropriate behavior but does not specify correct alternative behavior Cognitive Processes in Learning 0 Challenges to behavioral view of classical and operant conditioning o Argued that learning may result from not only from automatic associations but also from mental processes 0 Learning is more than just associations reinforcements and punishment Memory Encoding EncodinggtStoragegtRetrieval 0 Encoding o Stimuli must be transformed into a mental representation 0 Stimuli represented as a memory code I Visual 39 Acoustic 39 Semantic Storage 0 After information is encoded it must be stored 0 Information in memory can be stored in different ways 39 Which can determine how well it will be remembered Retrieval 0 To remember something you must retrieve it 0 Ease of retrieval depends on how the information was originally encoded and stored TheTypes of Memory 0 Sensory Memory 0 ShortTerm Memory I Working memory 0 Long Term Memory Info Processing Model Wednesday October 14 2015 759 AM Sensory Memory Majorfunction is holding info long enough to be processed further o Sensory registers Helps us to experience constantflow of info even if that flow is interrupted Selective attention Mental resources are focused on only part of the stimuli around us 0 Remaining sensory memories fade quickly Sensory memory has very high capacity 0 Registers everything you see or hear 0 But a very short life span 0 The info in sensory memory decays in less than one second Short term working memory ShorttermSTM stores limited amounts ofinfo for a limited time 0 Holds info up to about 18 seconds 0 Working memory allows us to mentally work with or manipulate info being held in shortterm memory combining smaller units of info into larger units 0 1776149218121941 o 1776 1492 1812 1941 Acronyms anotherway to chunk info Hermann Ebbinghaus 18501909 o Nonsense syllables TUV YOF GEK X02 1 0 As rehearsal increases relearning time decreases Long Term Memory 0 A relatively longlasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new info is believed to be unlimited 0 A relatively deep processing is necessary o Semantic meaning encoding 0 NOT REHEARSAL declarative with conscious recall 0 Facts and general knowledge 0 Personally experienced events 0 Processed in the hippocampus procedural without conscious recall 0 Skills and motor events 0 Tying shoe is learned and can be shown but hard to say out loud o Processed in part by cerebellum Encoding TO LTM Some info route to yourschool is automatically processed New or unusual infofriends new cell requires attention and effort Automatic Processing we process enormous amounts of info effortlessy without attention 1 SpaceLocation while reading textbook you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page 2 Time we unintentionally note the events that take place in a day 3 Frequency You effortlessly keep track ofthings that happen to you Encoding Effortfu Processing Effortful Encoding can occur at a deep or shallow level 0 Semantic meaning 0 Acoustic sound 0 Visual appearance 0 The more timeeffort put into encoding the better its remembered Friday October 16 2015 819 AM Moods and Memories 0 Usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood 0 Emotions or moods serve as Why don t we remember 1 It was never encoded 2 It decayed 3 Retrieval failure insufficient cues Encoding Failure Shortterm memory did not enter longterm memory 0 Extra effort must be made to encode STM into LTM o Rehearsing shallow encoding 0 Method of loci deep encoding Memory Decay Even if a memory trace is properly encoded can gradually fade May be due to deterioration of physical memory trace LTP Retrieval Failure 0 Memory trace is present in LTM but cannot be retrieved o Inadequate cues 0 Tip ofthe tongue 0 Lack of contexts o Interference retroactive and proactive Retroactive InterferenceNewmemory interferes with odmemory quotbackward actingquot Proactive Interference0d info interferes with New info quot Forward actingquot Memory Construction 0 While retrieving memories we filter or fill in missing pieces of info to make our recall more coherent ncorporating misleading info into ones memory of an event 0 Source Amnesia False memories d ja vu Improvmg IVIemory Study repeatedly space out not crammed Make material meaningful build up retrieval cues Use mnemonics Test yourself retrieval enhances memory