Sociology 1101--Ch 9 and Lec
Sociology 1101--Ch 9 and Lec Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology) at Ohio State University taught by Steven Lopez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Sociology Ch 9 RACE race as we know it has no deterministic biological basis that said race is so powerful that it can have lifeordeath consequences Race is a social phenomenon that seems natural but isn t It s a real social distinction but isn t a real natural boundary that defines a person The Myth of Race a group of people who share a set of characteristics typically but not always physical ones and are said to share a common bloodline 1790 Congress passed the first rights of citizenship to quotfree white persons only intending the Anglo Saxon community but as 3925 million Europeans arrived between 1880 and WWI the notion of what was considered as white had to change a belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits Characterized by 1 Humans are divided into distinct bloodlines andor physical types 2 These bloodlinesphysical traits are linked to distinct culture behavior personalities intellectual abilities etc 3 Certain groups are superior to others In the ancient worlds of Greece Rome and Egypt they saw physical appearance as the result of differences in environment The true test of a person a man was in his civic actions Race in the Early Modern World The modern racial concepts developed in the midseventeenth century in parallel with global changes such as the Protestant Reformation in Europe The Age of Exploration and the rise of capitalism was used to justify European colonial exploitation and slavery of the black African societies Ham cursed his future generations to serve his brothers forever nineteenthcentury theories of race that characterizes a period of feverish investigation into the origins explanations and classifications of race 1684 proposed a new geography based on the human body from facial lineaments to bodily configurations Here s the scheme I Europe South Asia North Africa and America people who shared climates and complexions 39Africa Proper people who had thick lips flat noses black skin and a scanty beard 39Asia Proper people who had white skin broad shoulders flat faces little eyes and no beard I Lapps Finland and Russian communities people who were ugly squat small amp animallike Anyone who was different from Europeans was considered a deviation from the norm the belief that one s own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one s own ie what that society does is gross because my culture tells me it is improper On the Natural Varieties of Mankind 1775 he is widely considered the founder of anthropology He cataloged variation by race including differences in head formation aka not an actual science classify the world based on the different types of bumps he could measure on people s skulls IFive principal varieties of humans Caucasian Mongoloid Ethiopian American and Malay Decided the Caucasians were superior bc of the excellent skull qualities 1741 1801 Swiss theologian who popularized correlating outside appearances to inner virtues Light skin amp small features high intellect and worthy character 1787 Said that dark skin should be considered a universal freckle and insisted that the differences in skin shade were really just like levels of suntans Said that if Africans moved to Antarctic their skin would lighten over generations This is false because suntan is an acquired trait that cannot be passed on to the next generation it s not heritable A now discredited FALSE belief that acquired attributes such as language skill flexibility or sun exposure can be passed down to a person s offspring See Reverend Smith for an example the application of Darwinian ideas namely survival of the fittest to society Many social theorists used this idea to say that some people defined by their race are better fit for survival and are naturally intended to dominate the other inferior races the philosophical and religious notion that all people are created equal Eugenics 1822 1911 literally meaning well born A pseudoscience FALSE science that says that controlling the fertility of the populations could influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation Meaning everything from criminality and disease to intelligence could supposedly be traced through bloodlines amp selectively bred in amp out of the population belief that humans were one species united under God Darwin surprisingly and many religious traditionalists supported this idea belief that different races represented distinct species Proved false 1866 1957 applied the eugenics thinking and tested a handful of American immigrants and generalized their test scores to whole populations claiming that 70 of Eastern and Southern Europe were morons who posed a serious threat to the good of America the movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants I1923 Supreme Court case of Dr Bhagat Singh Thind he was a highcaste Hindu from India who was the first Indian Sikh to be inducted in the US Army in WWI but was denied citizenship by the Supreme Court bc he did not qualify as a free white person relying on the common knowledge that his skin was too dark to be considered white even though leading anthropologists at the time uniformly classified Asian Indians as members of the Caucasian race TwentiethCentury Concepts of Race Nazi Germany key questions How can Jewishness be detected Are the Jews a race or a religious group Both actually they are a religious group that has been racialized The Nazi s were unable to devise a reliable strategy for determining Jewishness hence the yellow stars of David worn by Jews in the Nazioccupied countries used in America asserting that just one drop of black blood makes a person black This developed in response to the laws passed in many states forbidding interracial marriage It clumped all the quotwhite ethnics into one united category and completely erased stratification within the black community that had been previously based on skin tone believed race was more related to particular social circumstances Eventualy the decline of scientific racism shifted toward cultural theories of race and ethnicity it is now considered inappropriate to thinktalk about race in terms of biology eugenics The question ultimately is are you who you say you are or are you who you are genetically Wayne Joseph born and raised black and identified as black but after DNA testing 9 no African blood Genetic variation exists and corresponds to general geographic origins called race but the amount of variation is nowhere near as great as what most people believe Racial Realities Japan a displaced group of people who are now homeless and identified as inferior by the Japanese population They are a genetically diverse group but have no physical differences with the other Japanese They live in Japanese ghettos that score lower on the health educational achievement and income scales in comparison with other Japanese citizens IUnited States post 911 many Muslims are identified with slamoterrorists Most Arabs are seen as being Muslim even though only 13 are and are seen as a dangerous and undemocratic other who is inferior and hostile to Christians Not all Muslims are Arabs not all Arabs are Muslim more Arabs are Christian and Islam is practiced more by Persians and African Americans the formation of a new racial identity by drawing ideological boundaries of difference around a formerly unnoticed group of people Muslims in America are subjected to threats violence and harassment because of their physical appearance and dressing style The racialization of muslims operates on several flawed assumptions Turban a head piece worn by men Osama bin Laden and alQaida FALSE Most Arabs in the US are Muslim but most are Christian and nearly 23 of US Muslims are African American Media portrays Muslims as wealthy barbaric sexcrazed and lazy Race is Externaly imposed someone ELSE defines you as black white etc nvountary you don t decide what category you belong to someone else does Usualy based on physical differences Hierarchal If you re not white you re inferior Excusive you only belong to that group eg quotOne drop rule Unequal it s about power conflicts and stuggles Ethnicity is one s ethnic quality or affiliation Similar to nationaility without rights and citizen duties Vountary selfidentifying with a group Sefdefined Non hierarchal no ethnicity is superior to another Fuid and multiple you can by many different ethnicities eg Irish AND German Cultural based on differences in practices eg language food music etc Planar much less about unequal power than race is 1979 coined the term a nationality in the sense of identifying with a past or future nationality For later generations of white ethnics ethnicity is something that doesn t constrain them but is easily expressed with no risk of stigma and all the pleasures of individuality To be black in America only black because the traditions language groups and other ethnic identities were wiped out during the slave trade Whites don t care if they re from Nigeria Kenya Ethiopia they re all categorized as black Ethnic Groups in the US t s such a heterogeneous populations that there is no single numericallydominant group Before the huge arrival of the Europeans the indigenous population was anywhere between 10 and 100 million Today only 52 million Each group was geographically culturally and physically diverse but unified categorized nfected with disease from settlers enslaved by the Spanish quotcivilizedquot and displaced by the British but the French maintained relations for the fur trade Moved to reservations and forced to learn Anglo ways in the face of harsh treatment Were essential in WWII 29 Navajo men were quotcode talkers used to protect American communications They helped despite the ongoing mistreatment Today only about 15 living in the designated reservations The people living on the reservation are plagued with poverty health problems domestic abuse substance abuse poor infrastructure and high crime Have the lowest average socioeconomic status 35 of Native Americans die before age 45 Originally were indentured servants became slaves as colonial labor needs arose African Americans have been on the bottom of the racial hierarchy since the slave trade Make up 14 of today s population Suffer from high rates of poverty health problems unemployment and crime More than 9 of the black population is foreignborn eg AfroCaribbeans such as Cubans Haitians and Jamaicans and the foreignborn Africans are wanting to remain distinctly apart from the African Americans that are labeled as black Refers to a diverse group of people of Latin or Hispanic origin In 2011 Mexicans were the highest in terms of of population and immigration Many Latinos came voluntarily because of economic motivations Hispanic or Latino is considered an ethnic identity not a racial one Encompasses people from China Korea Japan and Southeast Asia First wave of immigration in the mid1800s in search of labor 9 leads to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 which banned the Chinese from the labor forcefirst time in US history to single out and bar entry to a group Second wave occurring now includes many higherclass highereducated individuals Even though there are a minority they still are high in terms of average socioeconomic status But certain groups Cambodians and Hmong experience very high poverty rates Seen as a because of their smooth assimilation in the US but people forget the history behind them Lastly their youth suffer from enormous pressure to achieve high goals Come from diverse places such as Arabian Peninsula North Africa Iran Iraq and the Palestinian territories Most Middle Easterners are from Iran and are Persians not Arabs Although the majority of new Middle Eastern Americans are Muslim many of them are Christian and a small number are Jewish Media portrays Arabs as wealthy barbaric sexcrazed and lazy Suffer from many negative stereotypes and hatecrimes after 911 The Importance of Being White Even though it seems like a natural and innate category being white is actually a flexible label that has expanded overtime to include many formerly nonwhite groups eg Jews Irish Italians etc The foundation of white identity is that there isn t any You re just an individual Nell Irvin Painter There are many privileges that put white people at an advantage ranging from the mundane to the major Check out Peggy McIntosh s quotWhite Privilege Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack for examples Whites don t feel the weight of representing an entire population with one s successes or failures New prowhite heritage movements are being founded to surpass being labeled as racist and deny the privileges that whites enjoy eg NAAWP MinorityMinority Group Relations MinorityMajority group relations can take assimilation pluralism segregation and conflict 1920s came up with straightline assimilation the universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate they first arrive then settle and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogenous country Park believed contact competition accommodation and assimilation This model doesn t apply to nonwhite immigrants nor involuntary immigrants eg African Americans in the slave trade 1964 tweaked Park s model by suggesting multiple kinds of assimilation outcomes in which an immigrant population can pass through cultural structural marital indentificational attitude receptional behavioral receptional and civic assimilation See table 91 in book for descriptions of each 1973 explained why ethnic identification didn t go away after assimilation the strength of ethnic ties resides in deeply felt ties to one s homeland culture ethnicity is fixed and Beyond the Melting Pot 1963 argued that people kept their ethnicities because it was in the individual s best interest to keep in in terms of uniting for instrumental purposes eg fending offjob competition Pluralism the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups ethnic or racial in one society The minority groups live separately but equally Minorities struggle with upward mobility and may not be assimilated for many different factors including location appearance perception etc Segregation and Discrimination the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of ethnicity or race eg Plessy v Ferguson 1896 quotseparate but equal During WWII America was fighting racist Nazi s when their own land was hugely divided by racism and segregation 9 leads to the 1954 which overturned the quotseparate but equal doctrine and officially integrated all public schools However even now it s only minimally less segregated most minorities go to schools that are majority nonwhite students It s a matter of income and racial disparities maintains an urban underclass in perpetual poverty by limiting its ties to upwardly mobile social networks Suggested to inflict poverty through a meaning that the ghetto extremely isolates those in poverty because they are surrounded daily by poor health joblessness outofwedlock children welfare educational failure a drug economy crime and violence and general social and physical deterioration Ghettos and black neighborhoods have been the result of meaning the whites move away when a black family moves into a neighborhood Not only are blacks isolated in terms ofjobs but now also in terms of housing and location The HOLC the US Federal Housing Administration and the US Veterans Administration furthered the residential segregation by pulling back funds from black neighborhoods and forcing blacks in poverty to move into crowded public housing projects Racial Conflict results when antagonistic groups within a society live integrated in the same neighborhoods hold the same jobs and go to the same schools Ex Belgium colonized Rwanda and couldn t give biological distinctions between the two groups who used to have great relations intermarry etc However they then began to show preference and special treatment for the Tutsi 9 leads to Tutsi superiority When Rwanda becomes self governing the Hutu took power a huge outbreak of violence ensued after three yearsquot 800000 Tutsi were murdered by Hutu in the span of 100 days Genocide the mass killing of a group of people based on racial ethical or religious traits Group Responses to Domination 1 the group leaves the place they re being dominated in eg Jews leave Poland after Holocaust blacks moved from the Jim Crow south to the industrial north 2 blending in with the dominant group eg Michael Jackson s drastic appearance change change surname to blend in more 3 the oppressed group feigns compliance and hides its resentment quotPlay the part in the presence of the dominant group But in their subaltern a subordinate oppressed group they present very different personalities and opinions aka quotcodeswitching a term coined by Elijah Anderson to describe how African Americans function in the presence of dominant white society 4 an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a lesspowerful group in society eg US Civil Rights Movement Prejudice Discrimination and the New Racism refers to the thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group harmful or negative acts not mere thoughts against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category and without regard to their individual merit one who holds prejudices and also discriminates Prototypical racists those who are neither prejudiced nor discriminatory walking the walk of equality one who is prejudiced but doesn t discriminate one who isn t prejudice but does discriminate replaces biology with culture and presumes that there is something fixed innate and inferior about nonwhite cultural practices It makes racism less obvious and more easily accepted How Race Matters The Case of Wealth An American Dilemma 1944 he pointed out that blacks and whites think about equality in different but complimentary ways Whites cared more about maintaining personal distance from blacks Blacks cared more about economic employment and legal rights What s the difference During the recession of 2008 the median wealth for whites fell 16 for blacks 53 and for Latinos 66 That39s a HUGE gap Wealth of parent s is a strong predictor of children s teenage and young adult outcomes blacks and latinos suffer from a lack of assets even if they make the same income as whites They are living paycheck to paycheck and are more likely to be trapped in a job and neighborhood and not be able to send their kids to college because they lack the future funds to do so Institutional Racism Property in black neighborhoods doesn t accrue value at the same rate as in mostly white areas 9 leads to asset inequality As blacks move in 9 property values drop 9 whites leave 9 property values drop even more 9 neighborhood quickly becomes predominantly black institutions and social dynamics that may seem raceneutral but actually disadvantage minority groups firms use race as a way to say that because minorities attended poorer schools and experienced other disadvantages they would be less productive in performance The Future of Race Racial and ethnic diversity in America will likely increase The Latino and Asian populations will triple leading to a society composed of multiple ethnic and racial groups not just a black and white society According to the new color line will most likely be black vs nonblacks Blacks will most likely remain the most disadvantaged but can we really compare them with immigrants They re not immigrants and never were so how can we compare them Reverse Migration Many countries ask America to welcome immigrants from their countries but have policies that discourage Americans from moving there but no one acknowledges this We need to make it fair and have more respect between linked countries to improve relations Adding these bilateral treaties that apply to both countries in terms of how to become a naturalized citizen and what your rights would be could improve newcitizens wellbeings and have a less non welcome response from the indigenous people
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