Psychology Week 11 Notes
Psychology Week 11 Notes PSY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Andrea Friedrich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Learning- relatively permanent change in an organism due to experience 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning 3. Observational Conditioning Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Experiment of dog, bell and food Animals anticipate Process of digestion Nobel Prize for digestion 1904 Unconditional Stimulus- stimulus that elicits a particular response without necessity of learning (reflex, involuntary reactions) Unconditioned response- response that occurs to a stimulus without the necessity of learning (involuntary, automatic) Conditioned Stimulus- stimulus that does not elicit a particular response initially but comes to do so as a result of becoming associated with an Unconditional Stimulus Conditioned Response- response that comes to be made to the Conditioned Stimulus as a result to classical conditioning Pavlovian (or classical) conditioning is the process when an organism learns to associate stimuli and thus anticipate events 5 Major Conditioning Processes 1. Acquisition- The initial learning of the stimulus -response relationship. (the association of dog food and a can opener sound) 2. Extinction- Unconditioned Stimuli no longer follows the Conditioned Stimulus; conditioned response eventually disappears 3. Spontaneous recovery- if Contistioned stimulus is presented, conditioned response reappears 4. Generalization- tendency to respond to stimuli resembling the conditioned stimuli 5. Discrimination- responding occurs in presense of one stimulation of one stimulus but not in the process of another Operant Conditioning Edward Thorndike Experiment with cats (escaping a box) If action comes with reward, it becomes stamped into brain “Law of effect” Law of effect- if response in present of stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, association between response and stimulus is strengthened; annoying event= weakened B.F. Skinner- “Skinners box” rat in box, pulling lever to get food Operant Conditioning- Process where an organism learns to associate a response and its consequences and thus repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts followed by punishment Reinforcement Reinforces stimuli that increase the probability of behavior 2 Types of Reinforces 1. Primary- events that are innately reinforcing; already like reinforcement (food) 2. Secondary- requires learning (points, grades) Positive- presentation of desirable stimulus Negative- not bad! Take away something unfavorable Punishment- decrease stimuli that decrease possibility of that behavior a. Positive- presentation of aversive stimuli b. Negative- take away good stimuli Children learn by models; watching bad/violent behaviors enhance tendency to aggress Memory- persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Information Processing Model- assumes the processing of information for memory storage is a similar way a computer processes memory 3 steps 1. Encoding- prepare information to be stored 2. Storage- saving information 3. Retrieval- bring information back Any break in this process causes to forget Encoding 1. Automatic 2. Effortful Herman Ebbinghaus 1850-1904 Knowledge of momory Memorized a list Test to help him remember better 1. Encoding a. Sematic b. Visual c. Short chunks rather than long 2. Storage a. 3 types of memory in which info must pass: b. Sensory- first stage of information processing; sensory receptors are stimulated by external energy i. Iconic memory- visual system ii. Echoic memory- auditory; last longer than vision (2-4 seconds) iii. “What” phenomena- remembering something a few seconds after c. short term i. limited storage capacity ii. can hold approximately 5-9 items of information iii. limited time unless rehearsal is used iv. after rehearsal is stopped, either info is forgotten or transferred into long-term memory d. long term- permanent and limitless reservoir of information i. episodic memory- events of our lives ii. procedural memory- related to skills and habits iii. semantic memory- general facts and information Updates on the model some information that goes straight from memory to long-term memory without awareness working memory vs. short-term memory o associates new and old memory to solve problems o information that is important or novel we focus our attention on 3. Retrieval a. Recall- person must retrieve information from earlier b. Recognition- measure of memory in which person must identify items c. Retrieval are stimulus of remembering
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