Sociology 1101--Ch 8
Sociology 1101--Ch 8 Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology) at Ohio State University taught by Steven Lopez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Sociology Ch 8 GENDER The biological categories of sex strongly influence the social dynamics of gender however the social categories of gender can sometimes determine the biology of sex comparing an outcome across time as some factor changes eg Does having kids make people happier and more fulfilled Ask before first child and then after birth Donald McCloskey 9 Deirdre McCloskey man changed to woman experiences many personality changes Mars and Venus sociologist who argues that men and women differ so fundamentally in their values attitudes thought processes and behavior planets they may as well be from separate planets Says men amp women have distinct biologically amp physically driven styles of communication feeling amp action Many other sociologists though argue that this can t explain concepts like sex sexuality gender and the social patternsexceptionscomplications that come with them a consciousnessraising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life Also the underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect in all aspects of life the biological differences that distinguish males from females desire sexual preference and sexual identity and behavior May vary by time and place a social position the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories what people do with the physical materials of sex Sex A Process in the Making The study of gender boils down to seeing how nature and nurture overlap penetrate and shape each other The biological world of sex and bodies doesn t exist outside of a social world JohnJohn story of botched circumcision of David left him with almost no penis so Money suggested a sex reassignment surgery David 9 Brenda Money claimed that Brenda was a success story of dealing with intersex children those born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn t seem to fit the typical definitions of male and female Brenda never feels comfortable as a girl We she learns the truth as an adolescent she attempts many suicides Eventually changes back to a man and has reassignment surgery again ISNA a group that advocates reform in the medical practice of sex reassignment 1 or 2 of every 1000 live births is estimated to undergo secretive sex reassignment surgery Doctors and parents basically believe they are saving the boy from shame of having a micro penis by giving him a vagina instead and calling him female Ancient Greeks believed in the quotonesex model of human body types Everyone had a male body but the female body was regarded as a male body whose parts were flipped inside rather than hanging on the outside Women weren t so radically different from men a line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones quotBorn that way Fixed and absolute BAD THOUGHT PROCESS a line of thought that explains social behaviors in terms of who you are in the natural world Eg If you are born with male parts absolutely a man 9 only sexually attracted to women either male OR female Two categories That s it 1994 feminist philosopher who proposes that we view the relationship between the natural and the social as existing on a Mobius strop an old math puzzle that looks like a twisted ribbon loop yet it has just one side and one ede She suggests that the Conclusion biological sex isn t in a fixed natural state Gender difference isn t a natural cleavage between a man and a woman Essentialists will say men and women are naturally biologically different so they behave differently It s actually much more fluid and ambiguous than we care to admit 1994 gender is a social construct that establishes patterns of expectations for people Orders our daily lives and is one of the fundamental building blocks of society Set up acceptable boundaries and teach kids to behave according to their assigned gender Gender differences in other cultures Navajo society of Native Americans recognize three genders masculine men feminine women and the nadle The are people who might be born with ambiguous genitalia or declare this later on as an identity choosing to performdressact in both masculine and feminine ways and can marry whomever without a loss of status ndian Hijras 1990 and 2005 are phenotypic men who wear female clothing renounce sexual desire and undergo a sacrificial emasculation excision of the penis and testicles They dedicate themselves to the goddess Bedhraj Mata may enter into prostitution communal living selfsacrifice and poverty See the change as a master status not related to gender even though many books use them as an example of an inbetween gender Gender Differences across History What counts as a quotgoodquot or quotbadquot man or woman has changed over time Eg Women s beauty standards 1600s plump women favored showed good health wealth and attractiveness Today skinny women favored having disposable income to remain skinny even with excess food available Medical advancement determined good body standards based on weight and height In 2010 Americans spent almost 127 billion on cosmetic procedures trying to reach the quotidea beauty standards the condition in which men are dominant and privileged and this dominance and privilege is invisible Men s definition of ideal standards has changed but typically goes unnoticed sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one s statuses as male or female 1988 calls gender roles because they grossly exaggerate the actual differences between men and women I The Woman Question What explains the nearly universal dominance of men over women Patriarchy a system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity 1975 proposed the in which every society participates in transforming the raw materials of biological sex into asymmetrical gender statuses Because of the taboo against incest women must leave their families of origin and go belong to another man 9 women valuable property trade them to strengthen relations between patriarchal families This quottraffic of women gives men certain rights over their female kin 9 sexgender system which is the result of human interaction 1974 suggested that because of women s universal association with the private sphere eg child birth and rearing children 9 identified with domestic life men assume dominance in the public sphere of work and politics This leads to the apparent male over female dominance 1974 claimed that women are identified with the chaos and danger of nature because of bodily functions like lactation and menstruation Functionalist Theories the theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures that exist to fulfill some set of necessary functions eg the family 9 reproduction of the species 1951 theory that men and women perform their sex roles as breadwinners and wivesmothers respectively because the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies fulfilling the function of reproducing workers to meet the demands of a capitalistic society Social structures like gender and the division of labor are held in place because they work to ensure a stable society the argument is tautological it explains the existence in terms of function it assumes that the need for the function preexists the function itself and it doesn t offer the possibility that there may be alternative structures that could fulfill the same functions It also doesn t explain how and why structure change occur throughout history If it s so functional why does it change so dramatically Gender roles appear to be voluntary eg choosing to be the breadwinner and sex and gender are being regarded as dichotomous roles when they re actually flexible and variable Psychoanalytical Thoeries 1856 1939 quotAnatomy is destiny Believes that biological determinism and family socialization develop the ideas of gender Boys All experience heterosexual love for their moms but distance themselves to avoid conflict with the father Girls Girls can t have sexual relations with their mother and experience penis envy toward her father However realizes that one day she can have a child too and experiences feminine gratification 1978 applied Freud s theory and reasoned that parent s unequal involvement in child rearing leads to girls learning that mothering is their expectation and boys are expected to work 1982 adapted Freud s psychology to say that men and women think differently Women view the world as composed of human connections and relationships make decisions based on Men view the world as governed by impersonal abstract rules and notions ofjustice make decisions based on adhering to a system of rules quot 1882 1960 expanded Freud s theory amp claimed boys suffer 2006 claimed that boys focus on the acquisition of property and territory because they have of women because they can t have a baby lacked empirical evidence based on the model of a twoparent nuclear family and discount the binary sexgender system when we know the categories are much more fluid in real life They also have essentialist thinking biologically determined behaviors Also some of the feminists failed to recognize that not all women adopt the quotethics of care or relational orientation and make everything women do quotsuperbquot Conflict Theories Claimed that gender not class as the driving force of history Socialist radical feminists claimed that the root of all social relations including production stemmed from unequal gender relations 1981 and 1983 both analyzed how capitalism combines with patriarchy to make women economically dependent on men s income Women have a disadvantaged position in the job market and within the family while men reap all the benefits of this subordination of women basically divide the world again into men and women and say these two groups are pitted against each other in a struggle for resources with women always losing Another variation of essentialism Microinteractionist Theories quotDoing Gender and 1987 quotDoing Gender article argued that gender is not a fixed identity that we take with us into our interactions but is a of those interactions Gender is a matter of active doing not simple natural being You perform masculinity or femininity constantly Argue that people create their social realities and identities through interactions with one another People have openended scripts and may change the way they behave based on social locations Black Feminism Beieve that liberal feminism effaces all of the lines of fragmentation and difference between women of different races ethnicities classes etc and assumes their all in the same oppressed boat Many women who were arguing for feminism and calling for more women in the work force ignored the thousands of workingclass and nonwhite women who were already working The definition of a woman is not a stable or obvious category and holds different meaning based on location race age sexual orientation ability etc Black women especially face other oppressions than white women eg being the quotothermotherquot for a child outside of your blood family The Invention of Women 1997 did research of the Yoruban society in West Africa which she claims was once a genderless society that got statuses based on seniority not gender Termed the system of distinction between males and females as meaning it acts as a filter through which all knowledge of the world runs through Sociology in the Bedroom The social construction of sexuality gives a lot of information on what is considered normal in the bedroom and behaviors associated In ancient Greece homosexual relationships were accepted and supposed to be patterned on an the active partner was to be older or higher in status than the passive partner It was considered shameful for a younger man to penetrate a master or noble US prisons It s not necessarily about seeking sexual gratification but more for identifying as who is in charge Some tribes view homosexuality as necessary because it s practical in keeping down birth rates If we treat sexuality as a social construct it makes sense that sexual expression in the bedroom is always variable from culture to culture Marxist feminists argue that sexuality in America is an expression of unequal power balance between men and women maledominated societies always have men on top and women on the bottom literally and figuratively the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to andor relations with other persons of the same sex It s treated as something that we acquired at birth as though it s in our genes despite other evidence eg identical twins where one is gay and the other straight The identity of homosexual didn t emerge until the 1850s 1926 1984 The History ofSexuaity 1978 French philosopher who made the case that the body is in control of our cultural practices He further argued that our bodies are linked to power and knowledge and power go hand in hand is the observation and management of populations by influencing patterns in births deaths and illnesses Homosexuaity was listed as a mental illness in the US until 1973 the process of selfsurveillance over and against oneself Now your sexuality and what happens in the bedroom defines how others see you and how you define and see yourself But it lies on a continuum Your sexuality is different from your gender identity Ex Brazilian transgender prostitutes called believe it s impossible for a man to try and become a woman They dress as females inject silicone use female names and pronouns yet they identify as males 1948 found high rates of bisexuality in teens as many as 46 of males and 6 14 of females engaged in it The study was biased because the people decided to partake in the study is becoming more common among teens before they even go on a date It doesn t always mean intercourse but there is some sexual action Dating is much more serious now and monogamy is taken more seriously but people put it off longer by hooking up etc They usually are servicing male pleasure Reciprocation usually only occurs during dating ST s are extremely prevalent because most teens are unaware they have them and hookups are occurring so frequently and with different partners Virginity pledges delayed the time when sex occurred and decreased the number of sexual partners BUT made the teens more likely to not use a condom than teens who didn t take the pledge Growing up Getting Ahead and Falling Behind occurs when a person s sex or gender is the basis forjudgement discrimination and hatred against him or her Sex may matter more than the person s performance or merits Women outnumber men in the amount of college enrollments yet women are overrepresented in traditionally feminine fields of study and outnumbered at elite colleges where men are groomed for highpower positions in finance law or politics Occupation may be giving way to explain the differences statistically that exist between men and women Regardless of gender physicists peak in more abstract terms and teachers in more relational ones Making not the cause The traits of men and women are distinct because theirjobs demand it The jobs make the person not vice versa Married women have moved in huge numbers into the labor force beginning in the 1970s Wages of women reflect the perception of whether women should be working and why Ex1950 1980 women wages nearly 60 of what men made because it was considered quotpin money not enough to support a family just for fun Today women make about 81 cents every 1 male dollar Women make less money than men today because it s a cumulative process Older women make a lower of wages than younger women All women are earning more but the gap between young amp old women hasn t changed So the disadvantaged increases over the lifespan of a woman Men and women are concentrated in different occupations Lega barriers removed by and subsequent legislation Yet women still routinely face an illegal form of discrimination that ranges from inappropriate jokes on the job to outsight sexual quotbarter all intended to make women feel uncomfortable and unwelcome particularly on the job Women allowed in combat roles 1994 People against this claim women are weaker can jeopardize the mission by becoming pregnant or serve as a distraction from the mission Women are also more likely to experience PTSD Women are also at much higher risk for rape by the enemy amp their own units Combine gender differences in work force ongoing gender discrimination 9 continuing discrepancies Maledominated occupations construction electricians truck drivers groundskeepers etc Mixed retail food service postsecondary teachers finance managers etc Femaledominated RN LPN receptionists secretaries PreK teachers etc Manual jobs 34 female stereotypes fragile weak don t like to get dirty quotToo dangerous or too heavy jobs Clerical jobs 75 female an invisible limit on women s climb up the occupational ladder Professiona jobs 53 women this is changing Managers 30 female toughminded analytic not emotional men characteristics BUT you need social skills women And it s harder for women to effectively exercise power if NOT ACCEPTED in the role Growing though When too many women enter into an occupation there is a where men leave and find new jobs These jobs then lose their autonomy job security and importance 9 leading to lower paying jobs lower prestige and lower benefits the accelerated promotion of men to the top of a work organization especially in feminized jobs Women are destined to become equals because it is inefficient to have women discriminated PWP Socialization to certain skills and preferences by family and friends Occupational Steering based on the quotnaturalquot tendencies of men vs women Majors in college women are clustered into a few majors Decision to limit career family plans limited options Jobs not shaped to adapt to family changes women take off paid work to take care of young children men don t Family duties who takes more care of the house Dramatic decline in the housework gap since 1965 Lots of progress toward gender equality Happened because women just basically do a lot less in the house the standard for clean houses has dramatically dropped that s fine Discrimination in hiring pay and promotions laws only address this one aspect Case studies in which resumes involving women and men names were sent women chosen less in male dominated fields and chosen more often in femaledominated fields
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