Chapter 5: Foundation of Employee Motivation
Chapter 5: Foundation of Employee Motivation ORGB 300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thao Duong on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ORGB 300 at Drexel University taught by Blythe Rosikiewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Humanities and Social Sciences at Drexel University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
FOUNDATIONS OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 1 The What and Why of Motivation Motivation the psychological processes that underlie the direction intensity and persistence of behavior or thought 0 Direction what an individual is attending to at a given time 0 Intensity amount of effort being invested in the activity 0 Persistence for how long that activity is the focus of one s attention Motivation is inferred from one s behavior or from the results associated with behavior There are two types of motivation 0 Extrinsic motivation results from the potential or actual receipt of extrinsic rewards 0 Intrinsic motivation occurs when an individual is turned on to one s work because of the positive internal feelings that are generated by doing well Why is motivation important Motivation is the fuel that drives result and performance Two general categories of motivation theories 0 Content focuses on identifying internal factors such as needs and satisfaction that energize employee motivation 0 Process focuses on explaining the process by which internal factors and environmental characteristics in uence employee motivation 5quot Content Theories of Motivation Content theorists ask What are the different needs that activate motivation s direction intensity and persistence Needs physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior They can be strong or weak and are in uenced by environmental factors a McGregor s Theorv X and Theorv Y Theory X the pessimistic view of employees that they dislike work must be monitored and can only be motivated with rewards and punishment Theory Y a modern and positive set of assumptions about people at work that they are selfengaged committed responsible and creative b Maslow s need hierarchv theorV Physiological gt Safety gt Love gt Esteem gt Selfactualization c Acquired needs theorV Definition three needs achievement affiliation and power are the key drivers of employee behavior 0 Need for achievement desire to excel overcome obstacles solve problem and rival and surpass others 0 Need for affiliation desire to maintain social relationships to be liked and to join groups 0 Need for power desire to in uence coach teach or encourage others to achieve d Selfdetermination theory Definition assumes that three innate needs in uence our behavior and wellbeing competence autonomy and relatedness 0 Competence needs I need to feel efficacious the desire to feel qualified knowledgeable and capable to complete an act task or goal 0 Autonomy needs I need to feel independent to in uence my environment the desire to have freedom and discretion in determining what you want to do and how you want to do it 0 Relatedness needs I want to be connected with others the desire to feel part of a group to belong and to be connected with others Herzberg s motivatorhvgiene theorV Definition job satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different sets satisfaction comes from motivating factors and dissatisfaction from hygiene factors 0 Hygiene factors What makes employees dissatisfied including company policy and administration technical supervision salary interpersonal relations with one s supervisor and working conditions cause a person to move from a state of no dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction 0 Motivating factors What makes employees satisfied including achievement recognition characteristics of the work responsibility and advancement cause a person to move from a state of no satisfaction to satisfaction Process Theories of Motivation Process theories of motivation attempt to describe how various person factors and environmental factors in the Integrative Framework affect motivation Three process theories of motivation 0 Equityjustice theory 0 Expectancy theory 0 Goalsetting theory Equitviustice theorv Am I being treated equallv Equity theory is a model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or giveandtake relationships 0 Outputs What do I perceive that I m getting out of my job 0 Inputs What do I perceive that I m putting into my job 0 Comparison How does my ratio of outputs to inputs compare with relevant others Justice 0 Distributive justice 0 Procedural justice 0 Interactional justice Expectancv theorV Definition people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes 0 Expectancy Can I achieve my desired level of performance 0 Instrumentality What intrinsic and extrinsic rewards will I receive ifI achieved my desired level of performance 0 Valence How much do I value the rewards I receive Your motivation will be high when all three elements in the model are high c Goalsetting theorV Goals that are specific and difficult lead to higher performance than general goals like do your best or improve performance Goal specificity refers to the quantifiability of a goal Certain conditions are necessary for goal setting to work Performance feedback and participation in deciding how to achieve goals are necessary but not sufficient for goal setting to work 4 Motivating Employees Through Job Design Job design job redesign or work design refers to any set of activities that involve the alteration of specific jobs or interdependent systems of jobs with the intent of improving the quality of employee job experience and their onthejob productivity a Topdown Approaches Management Designs Your Job Scientific management that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation experiment or reasoning Job enlargement horizontal loading involves putting more variety into a worker s job by combining specialized tasks of comparable difficulty Job rotation calls for moving employees from one specialized job to another Job enrichment vertical loading modifying a job such that an employee has the opportunity to experience achievement recognition stimulating work responsibility and advancement The job characteristics model to promote high intrinsic motivation by designing job that possess the five core job characteristics skill variety task identity task significance autonomy and feedback b Bottomup Approaches You Design Your Own Job Job crafting the physical and cognitive changes individuals make in the task or relational boundaries of their work c Idiosyncratic Deals IDeals You Negotiate the Design of Your Job Ideals represent employment terms individual negotiate for themselves taking myriad forms from exible schedules to career development Extrinsic motivators Herzberg s twofactor theory and Maslow s