Chapter 9: Development
Chapter 9: Development 1110
Popular in General Biology
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by BrittanyElizabeth on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1110 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Donna L Boyd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
Reviews for Chapter 9: Development
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter 6 Memory Ways to measure memory 1 Recall ability to retrieve and reproduce learned material A Rate Verbatim must be exact EX Phone numbers B Reconstruction Remember parts and fill in the rest C Cued Recall Fill in the blank 2 Recognition ability to recognize something previously learned EX Multiple Choice 3 Relearning Method of Savings The extent to which a person learns a task more quickly the second time compared to the first Most sensitive of all measures EX Learning 20 words one week and then a week later going back to relearn the list Each trial keeps count of the length of time it took to fully learn the list Memory Definition 1 Encoding A Automatic Processing Incidental B Effortful Processing Intentional 2 Storage 3 Retrieval Getting it out of memory Three Component Model Structure of Memory 1 Sensory Memory Sensory Register AIconic Memory Visual B Echoic Memory Sound EX Remembering things for only a few minutes 2 Short Term Memory STM Stores information about 1520 Seconds Information coded acoustically By sound EX C confused with Z Rather O STM part of working a memory working memory allows one to work with information in STM Capacity 7 2 59 Chunking Chunk a meaningful unit Serial Position Effect Primacy Effort Recall first few words better Recency Effort Recall last few words better 3 Long Term Memory Information Coded Semantically According to meaning EX Pie instead of Cake May have unlimited capacity Consolidation Rehearsal 1 Maintenance Rehearsal Merely repeating new information without thinking about it 2Elaborative Rehearsal Depth and extent of processing Long Term Memory Types of Long Term Memory 1 Procedural Memory Memory of how to do something Well learned habits 2 Episodic Memory Recall of a specific event that happened when the person was present Autobiographical Memory Specific type of episodic memory Personal fact recollection 3 Semantic Memory Long term storage of facts and information Semantic Memory Networks organization of related concepts Craik and Lockhart Breadth ExtentScope of processing EX Dual Coding ReConstructive Nature of Memory Schemas Mental representations of categories of objects places events and people Scripts Schemas that involve the organization evetns in time Explanation of Memory and Forgetting A Trace Decoy Theory Engrams Physical changes in the brain BInterference Theory 1 Proactive Inhibition Interference quotGoing forwardquot Earlier learned material interferes with ability to learn new material 2 Retroactive Inhibition Interference Learning new material may interfere with ability to recall previously learned material C Repression Theory Motivated Forgetting Dissociative PsychogenicAmnesia D Retrieval Failure Loss of Access CueDependent learning The inability to retrieve information stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall TOT Tip Of the Tongue E Storage Failure Pseudoforgetting Ways to Improve Remembering 1 Improving Retention A Overlearning B Review C Active Recitation D Organization of Material 2 Mnemonic Strategies Memory Tricks A Reducing the number of units B Increasing Meaningfulness Acronyms ROY G BIV HOMESetc C Using Visual Imagery Method of Loci associating new information With a series of specific physical locations already established in memory Effects of Brain Damage Introduction Hippocampus Involved in formation of new memories Types of Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia loss of memory for events before injury Antero grade Amnesia difficultly in remembering events after the injury Diseases 1 Korsakoffs Syndrome Alcohol Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder Thiamine B12 Deficiency 2 Alzheimer39s Chapter 7 Intelligence Testing Introduction Terms and Concepts A Standardization 1 Uniformity in administering scoring and interpreting a test 2 Development and use of norms description of the frequency of particular scores on a test Mean and standard deviation Important for Interpretation Use of standardized sample Representative Sample B Reliability Consistency Test Retest Alternate Form C Validity What is Intelligence De nition The possession of knowledge The ability to use that knowledge to reason about the world The ability to use that reasoning ada E hepter 7quot Inte 111 genee Teeting ntrdduetidn Terrne end Deneeete Stenderdizetidn 1 Dnifdrrnity in edrninieteringd ECDfngaHd interpreting eteet E D evel dernent end dee dfndrrne deeerietidn df the freddeney dfeertiedler eedree dn e teet M een end etenderd etidn rnedrtent fdr nterereteti dn lJ ee dfetenderdized eernele F1 eereeentetiue Sernel ej D F1 eliehil it Ceneieteneyr T eet H eteet lterneteF drrn I13fidelidit gfr Whet iel ntellidenee Definitidn T he edeeeeei dn df lendwl ed ge T he ehi litr tddeethet lendwledge td reeedn ehddt the werld T he ehi Iityr tddeethet reeedning edeetiuelyin different envirdnrnente CDHCEDtUEIiEEtiDH 391 rDldhel General F eetdr quotquot39 feetdr ernert eerdee the beard EMutiee ntelligeneee quotE rndti dnel nte Iigenee nvdlvee the ehilitytd identifyyddr DWF I and ether peeple39e erndtidne emreee end ngJI tEEf DtiDHEJ ete D F Idid we Eryetelli zed ntei genee Dryetellized lendwing feete and he39d ng the ehilitytddee end edrnhinethern F Idid ereeting HDUEI edldtidnetd erdhlerne H i Etny end B eeie dneedte D inet39e W drItSereening D ee E inet end Sirndn j ddgrnent edrnereheneidn end reeedning M entel ge M iii edrreeedndetd the age dfndrrnel ehildren whdee DEFfof f IEHCE reeehee the eerne DDi nt D StenfdrdDinet Terrnen Stern39eCdneeet dfl D M entel geDivided by CHFDHDIDgiCEI E1th iii 391 ID 3rquot739rjn1uTeeting rrnyeleheend beta WWI D ntrdddetidn deeuietidn D ptively in different environments Conceptualization 1 Global General Factor factor smart across the board 2 Multiple Intelligences A quotEmotional Intelligencequot Involves the ability to identify your own and other people39s emotions express and regulate emotions etc B Fluid vs Crystallized Intelligence Crystallized knowing facts and having the ability to use and combine them Fluid creating novel solutions to problems History and Basic Concepts A Binet39s Work Screening Device Binet and Simon Judgment comprehension and reasoning Mental Age MA corresponds to the age of normal children whose performance reaches the same point B Stanford Binet Terman Stern39s Concept of IQ Mental Age Divided by Chronological Age X 100 IQ C Group Testing Army alpha and beta WWI D Introduction of Deviation IQ A statistical comparison of raw scores to the raw scores of others in the same age group Average will always be 100 Standard Deviation 15 23 68 score between 85 and 115 Speci c IQ Tests Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children V WISCV 6 years old to 16 years and 11 months old Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV WAISIV 16 years old and up Stanford Binet 285 Important Points to Remember IQ Tests 1 Do NOT measure innate intelligence 2 Do NOT provide perfectly reliable scores 3 Do NOT measure all there is to know about a person 4 Are NOT interchangeable 5 Flynn Effect The face that the average IQ score tends to progressively increase over time Long Controversy Evidence on both sides Twins and adoption studies are the best method Conclusion Reaction range 2025 points the range of possible reactions to environmental events Intellectual Disabilities Introduction All Three must be present in order to be de ned intellectually disabled 1 ltor70 5 2 De cit Adaptive Behavior 3 On set during the developmental period Prevalence Etioogy Causes 1 Biological Factors Down Syndrome Extra Chromosome PKU Recessive disorder must stay on lifelong diet Fragile X Syndrome genetic disorder typically males 2 Psychosocial Factors Psychosocial ID No speci c biological or environmental cause Levels 0 Mild O IQ39s 5070 0 85 0 36 grade level 0 Moderate O IQ39s 3549 0 12 O K 3 grade level 0 Severe O IQ39s 2034 0 Mental Age 26 years old 0 Profound O lQ39s lt20 0 Mental Age less than 2 years old Severe and Profound combined are only made up of 23 of disabled people Start HERE to Write Notes Learning Disabilities LD Dyslexia Gifted Terman quotTermitesquot The ones that were being studied were called quotTermitesquot As Adults almost all in better physical and mental health Creativity How to de ne Conceptual de nition 1 Vertical Used on IQ tests 1 right answer Logica linear Convergent 2 Lateral There is no one right answer Divergent How to Measure ldeational Fluency the ability to generate lots of ideas that are appropriate to task Personality Characteristics Nonconformist High in persistence hard working Flexible High selfesteem Relationship to IQ quotModestquot Development Introduction De nition The study of the social cognitive and physical changes that occur over the course of a life span Research Methods 1 Crosssectional Studies Test people of Different ages Cohort effect the effect of belonging to a particular generation 2 Longitudinal Studies Test same people as they age Prenatal Development Stages of Prenatal Development 1 Germinal Stage 02 weeks after conception Fertilized egg is called a quotZygotequot 2 Embryonic Period 28 weeks all basic structures of body are beginning to form 3 Fetal Period 8 weeks and on Size proportion and complexity Apgar Score medical test looking at the biological medical and physiological health of the baby Prenatal In uences Introduction Teratogens substances that cause birth defects Examples 1 Thalidomide Never in the USA made to prevent nausea in pregnant woman 2 Diethylstilbestrol DES 19451970 used to treat woman that had history of miscarriages Preventively effected in teen years Higher rates of rare Cancer vaginal cancer breast cancer etc 3 Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS Intelectua Disabilities Facia abnormalities including nose and upper lip Hyperactivity Heart problems 4 Smoking Higher risk of miscarriages Lower birth weightprematurity Respiratory problems SIDS LDs Cognitive Development Introduction Jean Piaget 18961980 Introduction to his Theory Active Searching Oualitatively different than adults Interaction between nature and nurture Terms and Concepts 1 Schema Scheme Cognitive units Mental representations of the world 2 Adaptation balance between A Assimilation placing new environment events into existing structures B Accommodation developing new structures Change creating new schemas 3 Stage Theory Stages were categorical could only be in one stageSo Piaget thought Will be on Test Stage 1 Sensorimotor Coordinating sensory information with body movements 02 years of age Object Permanence knowing something exists without seeing it Slowly develops throughout this stage develops overtime Stage 2 Preoperational 27 years of age Go by how things appear Animistic Thinking Think anatomic objects are alive Egocentric only see things from their point of view Faiure to decenter Example 2 yellow daisies 6 red roses Faiure to conserve Conservation knowing that when one aspect of an object alters other aspects may remain the same Stage 3 Concrete Operations 711 years of age Conservation Understand jokes and rst time out of decenter Stage 4 Formal Operations 11 Abstract thinking Counterfactual thinking Evaluation of Piaget We now know that Piaget Underestimated children and overestimated adults Social Relationships Introduction Attachment Close emotional bond that develops between an infant and caregiver A Animals 1 lmprinting learning process that occurs early in life and establishes a long lasting behavior Lorenz Critica Period if something is going to occur naturally it must happen when it does 2 Harlow39s Work Importance of physical contact Comfort over substance B Humans 1 Bonding Sensitive Period 2 Disorders A Reactive Attachment Disorder B Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder Both must be diagnosed by age 5 Both caused by poor care taker Aso both caused by change in care givers 3 Separation Anxiety Starts at about 9 months Wil decrease about 2 years old 4 Attachment Issues Chidren get attached to parents and siblings Temperament Thomas and Chess The original researchers Types 1 Easy Happy Babies don39t fuss very much and very regular stick to a schedule but will adjust well 2 Slow to warmup Takes them longer to adjust starts out shy will begin to slowly open up 3 Difficult Fussy irritable inconsistent research says that kids with ADHD had the difficult temperament as an infant Dissonant Stress Miss Match between environment and temperament Middle Years Introduction Sandwich Generation 4060 years old Relationship with Parents Fiia Responsibility adult children39s belief that they should help their elderly parents Heping Behavior Perception of Relationship Most people describe themselves as having a close or almost close relationship with their parents Relationship with Children and Spouse Introduction Empty Nest Postparenta Period Description Role Change Spouse Chidren Spouse relationship is high it goes down when children are born and then when the children leave high again Perception of this Period Menopause 4555 years old Postmenopausal zest quotPrime of Lifequot Negative emotions go down with age Erik H Erikson Introduction His Background Born in German 1902 both biological parents were Danish Mom remarried when he was about 2 Raised Jewish but didn39t feel like he t in Became a Psychoanalysis Moved to US and changed his name Theory Psychosocial Differences with Freud 1 More social and culture emphasis 2 Development throughout lifespan Freud said that personality was set in the rst 5 years of life Erikson thought the opposite 3 More optimistic Erikson thought that anybody could help the child without psychoanalysis Ex neighbor teacher etc Erikson39s Theory Stages Not good to be completely at the high end 1 Trust vs Mistrust 01 years old These things change over time 2 Autonomy vs Doubt Exploring really doing things for themselves terrible two39s 12 years old The ability that they can do something on their own 3 Initiative vs Guilt The play age 35 years old Interacting with other children Initiative learning to take the lead If the child is put down for taking the lead that might become guilty 4 Industry vs Inferiority 611 years old Making things 5 Identity vs Role Confusion 1218 years old Negative Identity Joining a gang involved in drugs in a cult etc Adoescence Social networking Identity can be negative or positive 6 Intimacy vs Isolation Young adulthood Being able to take to another person without losing yourself Have to know who you are rst before you can be deeply involved intimately 7 Generativity vs SelfAbsorption Stagnation Middle Age Generativitytrying to make the world a better place volunteering and helping other SelfAbsorption only caring for yourself 8 Integrity vs Despair Old age ntegrity thinking of life as a whole and accepting inevitable death Despair fear of dying and regretting choices Can happen earlier