Elbow Complex EXSC 322
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ticynn London on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 322 at Old Dominion University taught by Phil Sabatini in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Anatomical Kinesiology in Physical Education at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Elbow Complex Distal humerus Medial epicondyle • Attachment site for: Olecranon fossa Joint capsule • Deep depression on posterior surface of distal humerus Ulnar collateral ligament Superficial flexor muscles of the forearm • Proximal to the trochlea • Olecranon process (ulna) fits into Lateral epicondyle this notch when elbow is extended • Attachment site for: Radial collateral ligament Superficial extensor muscles of the forearm Capitulum • Hemispheric shape • Situated on anterior and distal aspect of humerus • Does not extend posteriorly Trochlea • Pulley-shaped surface • 330 surface area Radial & coronoid fossae • Shallow depressions on anterior surface of distal humerus • Proximal to the capitulum and trochlea, respectively • Allow close approximation between humerus and the radius and ulna during maximum elbow flexion • (Radial Head – Radial Fossa, Coronoid Process of Ulna – Coronoid Fossa) Proximal Ulna Larger than distal end Olecranon process • Hook like projection • Extends proximally and anteriorly Coronoid process • Superior surface forms floor of trochlear notch • Lateral aspect is a smooth oval facet, i.e., radial notch Trochlear notch • Articulates with trochlea of the humerus Radial notch • Articulates with head of the radius Smaller than distal end Radial head • Disc-shaped expansion of proximal end of the radius • Proximal end is concave (fovea) Articulates with the capitulum (Humerus) • Rim articulates with radial notch (Ulna) Elbow Joint Hinge-type joint (Uni-Axial) Allows only flexion & extension 2 interrelated joints - Humeroulnar articulation - Humeroradial articulation Elbow Ligaments Radial (lateral) and ulnar (medial) collateral ligaments: support for the sides of the joint. Annular ligament: holds the proximal radioulnar joint together Ulnohumeral Joint • The joint is a union between the trochlea on the distal end of the humerus and the trochlear notch on the ulna. • On the front of the ulna is the coronoid process which makes contact in the coronoid fossa of the humerus, limiting flexion in the terminal stages of motion • On the posterior side is the olecranon process, which makes contact with the olecranon fossa on the humerus, terminating extension. Radial Collateral Ligament • Provides lateral stability • Resists varus torques • Prevents elbow adduction • Rarely injured Ulnar Collateral Ligament • Provides medial support • Resists valgus torques • Prevent elbow abduction • Many contact sports & throwing activities place stress on medial aspect of joint, resulting in injury Proximal Radioulnar Articulation • Pivot-type joint (uni-axial) • Minimal bony support • Annular ligament maintains radial head in its joint RadioUnlar joint • As the radius crosses over the ulna in pronation, the distal end of the ulna moves laterally. • Interosseus membrane is the site for muscular attachment and ensures that the radius and ulna maintain a specific relationship to each other. Lateral Epicondylitis “Tennis Elbow” – inflammation, soreness or pain on the outside (lateral) side of the upper arm near elbow. MOI = repetitive microtrauma to insertion of wrist extensor muscles Risk Factors – Repetitive gripping & twisting – Poor or improper technique – Poor or improper equipment Medial Epicondylitis “Golfer’s Elbow” – inflammation, soreness or pain on the inside (medial) side of the upper arm near elbow. MOI = repeated forceful wrist flexion and extreme valgus torque on the elbow Medial strain – initial forward phase of throw – hand and elbow lag behind trunk and shoulder Elbow Movements Flexion movement of forearm to shoulder by bending the elbow to decrease its angle Extension movement of forearm away from shoulder by straightening the elbow to increase its angle Pronation internal rotary movement of radius on ulna that results in hand moving from palm- up to palm-down position Supination external rotary movement of radius on ulna that results in hand moving from palm- down to palm-up position Muscles of the Elbow Flexion • Biceps Brachii • Brachialis • Brachioradialis • Pronator Teres Extension • Triceps Brachii • Anconeus Supination • Biceps Brachii • Supinator • Brachioradialis Pronation • Pronator Teres • Pronator Quadratus • Brachioradialis