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Epidemiology Notes

by: aleavick

Epidemiology Notes KINS 2010

GPA 3.8
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt

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No textbook reading for this section, but it WILL be included on the test. Hope this helps!
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by aleavick on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KINS 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Dr Schmidt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology 2010 in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 10/27/15
Class Notes Physical Activity Epidemiology NO associated readings We in the West are the rst generations in human history in which the mass of the population has to deliberately exercise to be healthyquot Jerry Morris Used to be part of everyday existence couldn t avoid it Ex Farms factories with manual labor not a lot of household gadgets so house work Ex Omish avg 18000 steps What is epidemiology The study of the distribution frequency and type of disease in a population and determinants factors that make people more or less at risk of health and disease in human populations Describe frequencies and types Groups with and at risk of disease Factors that in uence their distribution Finding causes and preventing future cases Key science of public health Father of epidemiology John Snow Used epideloigical methods to identify cause of a disease outbreak and prevent further cases Lived in London key killers cholera Spread by bacteria in water supply Noticed cases were occurring in clusters around certain water pumps lf stopped people from drinking from those pumps could we stop people from getting cholera He moved the water pump handles and the rates of cholera went down Popuation Vs clinical medicine Epidemiology rst focused on infectious diseases in the 19005 Ex Leading cause of death in uenza which lead to pneumonia tuberculosis Separate from medicine Plays a strong role in medicine by using evidence and distribution to help identify and diagnose people Clinical Medicine Focuses on the care of individuals sick Secondary prevention Trying to identify people who are sick and don t know it screening for breast cancer has it but don t know it Tertiary Prevention Someone sick illness or injury prevent from getting worse or causing further injury stroke without treatment for function can cause a lot of other problems to arise Population Medicine epidemiology Focuses on the community as a whole ncudes people at risk for developing disease Control of disease and primary prevention Popuation medicine Epidemiology ldentify those at risk Change factors that cause disease or condition Ex Smoking Ex Cavities because of water uoride levels How change Reduce odds of getting disease More Healthy Society Get sick later lose function slower liver longer and die quickly when its time Epidemioogy Aims Descriptive Study the distribution of frequencies and patterns of health events Try to answer who what where and when Ex US heart attacks 1991 500000 deathsyear AHA Charted by age and by gender Men have a higher risk for heart attacks at younger ages and once you get older the gap shrinks Ex Behavioral explanation Women watch gure more better diet Women hit menopause Men decrease in testosterone Maybe it s a hormonal factor Can look at trends over time Ex Diabetes has increased over time Not a steady rate up until 97 went down and then increase Number one cause Diet Marker in changes of obesity over time Can look at chart numbers on slides Anaytic Attempt to search for causes or factors associated with risk of disease Trying to answer quothowquot and why Experimental study design Actual charts on power point Group of subjects Treatment group l Outcome l Outcome l RR Control Group Outcome l Outcome Random allocation Count outcomes calculate effect Probems with this type of study Ethical issues Any suspicion that smoking is bad an ethical problem assigning some to smoke and others not to smoke Epidemiologic Study Design Sample Selection Exposed group l Outcome l Outcome Not Random RR l Unexposed ground l Outcome l Outcome Exposure ascertainment count outcomes Calculate effect Time Follow forward Difference in the epidemiologic design vs Experimental study design Not randomly assigning people Measuring what people are doing on their own Concept of relative risk Outcome measure Most of evidence based on this type of measure RR Risk in exposed group active risk in unexposed inactive group If RR1 Risk in exposed equal to risk in nonexposed No association If RR gt1 Risk in exposed greater than risk in nonexposed group Positive association If it was 2Exposed has twice the risk of developing the health outcome vs the unexposed group If RR lt 1 Negative association Risk in exposed less than risk in nonexposed Exampe Calculation of Relative Risk Sample selection l 100 smokers I 100 Lung CA 1R1001000 RR 10020 50 l 500 nonsmokers I 100 Lung CA 1R 201000 Coronary Heart Disease Hypothesis quot Men in physically active jobs suffer less coronaryischemic heart disease than comparable men in sedentary jobs such disease as the active do develop is less severe an strikes at later agesquot Jeremy Morris 1953 rst modern Physical Activity Epidemiologist London Bus Study Calculated incidence of heart attacks among conductors and drivers Calculation of relative risk Among 3544 year olds RR 100200 50 Active conductors have half the risk of having a heart attack compared to the inactive drivers Example Harvard alumni study measured physical activity Ageadjusted RR for all cause mortality among 17000 Harvard Aluni 1413 deaths over 14 years of follow up Graph on slides Example Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study 13000 men and women were followed for 8 years Men had the higher rates of the all cause death each time Risk of all cause death Drops dramatically if you move out of the least t category Physical Activity Epidemiology The study of the relationship between physical activity and health using epidemiologic methods ncudes Measurement and surveillance of PA Correlates and risk factors of inactivity Doseresponse issues Identi cation of effective promotion strategies Medical Conditions in uenced by PA Immune system Overweight and obesity Osteoporosis Osteoarthritis Depression and Anxiety Stroke Coronary heart disease Diabetes Dyslipidemia Hype engon Cancer breast colon prosthesis Phlebitis Venous stasis Physical activity Fitness and Health For improved cardiorespiratory tness Physical Activity and Health A Report of the Surgeon General 1996 Key messages People of all ages male and female bene t from regular physical activity At least 30 minutes of moderate to intense exercise on most days of the week can improve health Additional health bene ts are gained though greater amounts of physical activity Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans 2008 First governmental guidelines Greater than or equal to 60minute moderate or vigorous aerobic PA every day Vigorous intensity PA on 3 daysweek Muscle and Bone strengthening PA on 3daysweek Greater than or equal to 150 minute moderate aerobic PA every week Greater than or equal to 75 minute vigorous aerobic PA every week Or an equivalent combination of these two ln bouts of 10 minute preferably spread throughout the week Muscle strengthening PA 2 days week Oder Adults Aged 65 Adult guidelines unless limited by chronic conditions avoid inactivity Balance exercises if at risk of falling Additional health bene ts with 300 min of moderate or 150 minutes of vigorous PA per week Physical Activity Epidemiology Future Directions lncudes Improve Measurement DoseResponsemodify recommendations Identify and implement effective strategies to increase population levels of physical activity Obesity epidemic Importance of sedentary BehaviorNEAT Video Real world example commercials How many minutes of physical activity are recommended for adults per week A 75 moderate intensity C 150 vigorousintensity D 300 Moderate E 300 Vigorous intensity Difference between epidemiologic and experimental study designs A Epidemiological studies use more precise measurements techniques B Epidemiological studies use random group assignment D Experimental studies are more commonly conducted in people


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