Lipids 10/20- First Lecture and readings After Exam #2
Lipids 10/20- First Lecture and readings After Exam #2 NUTR 400 L21
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Krasko on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 400 L21 at University of New Hampshire taught by Professor Jesse Morrell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Health & Well Being in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
1020 First Lecture after exam I am not hired by the University just a fellow student taking my notes during lectures and Readings Lipids What are lipids energy yielding 9 calg organic nutrient Insoluble in water hydrophobic Fats and oils Diverse group triglycerides phospholipids sterols Fairly diverse in structural appearance Triglycerides most common lipid made of 3 fatty acids glycerol backbone 3 fatty acids can vary however there will always be a glycerol backbone If you remove 1 Fatty Acid it makes a diglyceride If you remove 2 fatty acids it makes a monoglyceride Phospholipids found in food and body the body can produce all it needs of this but we eat extra from out food make up every cell membrane 2 fatty acids glycerol phospholipid hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions Emu5i er5 agents that suspend fat in water Example bile is an important emulsi er Sterols cholesterol most common sterol no fatty acids or glycerol in the structure instead is has a ring structure Made of 6 or 5 carbons one in the shape of a house Produced in the Liver so only in animalbased organisms in all of our cell membranes Important starting material for sex hormones Make vitamin D from sterols as well We consume this and ALSO make it Fatty Acids Building blocks of Triglyceride and Phospholipids Long chain of carbon atoms with an quotomegaquot methol end and an quotalphaquot acid end Classi ed by Length of carbon chain Saturation Shape of chain Chain Length Short less than 6 carbon Medium 612 carbon Long more than 12 Carbon Shorter are more likely to be liquid at room temperature Longer are more likely to be solid at room temperature butter for example Longer chains are more common Saturation Saturated when all carbons are bonded by single bonds Where ever a hydrogen can be connected to the carbon chain it is Monounsaturated 1 double bond within the chain This loses a hydrogen on the double bond Polvunsaturated 2 or more double bonds Point of unsaturation where the double bond replaces the single bond and Hydrogen Shape Saturated straight carbon chain Unsaturated may bend at the double bond Cis o 2 hydrogen atoms rebel each other creating a bend in the chain Transformation o H atoms are on separate sides of chain so they don t repel each other keeping a straight chain long chain saturated fatty acids stack well They are solid at room temperatures Examples lard and butter monosaturated and polyunsaturated don t stack well because they are bent They are liquid at room temperature Oils are an example Trans Fatty Acids Most formed by hydrogenation Hydrogenation When they add unsaturated oil and add hydrogen creating saturated oil This results in trans fat The purpose is to make inexpensive oils into solid fats like butter This makes the product cheaper to make The LEAST HEALTHY to consume Essential Fatty Acids Our body is unable to make 2 Polyunsaturated Acids PUFA Alphalinoleic acid Linoleic Acid Alpha linoleic ln ax seed canola oil fatty sh Salmon Want people to eat more of this Linoleic In common things we eat Eicosanoids Used by our bodies for physiological functions that come from these to PUFA s Why do we need to eat Lipids We need to eat to get 2 essential fatty acids We need 2 fatty acids to create Lipids They provide Energy insulation FSV Make all of our cell membranes Essential fatty acids are needed Increase taste in food and our feeling full after eating FSV 0 Fat soluble Vitamins 0 Essential to our health 0 Best absorbed with dietary fats Diqestinq Lipids in the bodv 1 Mouth and stomach minimal digestion 2 Top of small intestine a Bile released made in liver stored in gallbladder b Emulsi cation facilitates digestion c Bile mixes with chime and emulsi es the lipids d Allows the pancreatic lipase to break down the large lipids Track the fat Fat droplet i Bile breaks it in little droplets called micell i Pancreatic Lipase can now break down the triglyceride i Triglyceride breaks down into a monoglyceride and 2 fatty acids i It can now be absorbed into the intestinal wall i It goes through the intestinal wall once broken down into monoglyceride and Fatty Acids i Inside intestinal wall it goes back into a triglyceride i Coats triglyceride with protein this makes it hydrophilic so it can be transferred in blood i Enters lymphatic system now as a chylomicron protein covered triglyceride then enters blood Lipid Transport Humans mainly are made of water Water and oil don t mix In order to transport fats in the body we need to make a lipoprotein Lipoprotein allows fats to circulate in blood Types Chylomicron biggest VLDL very low density lipoprotein LDL low density quotBad cholesterolquot HDL high density quotgood cholestero Iquot VLDL travels in blood delivers FA to bodies tissues LDL High cholesterol in it Delivers cholesterol to body tissue HDL smallest and most dense High protein Removes cholesterol from body Protects against heart disease Are some lipids better than others Most foods are a mixture of Fatty Acids Animalbased fats and tropical oils coconut or palm oils are rich in saturated fat Example of Monosaturated rich foods canola oil Example of PUFA soft ower corn soy Example of Trans fat hydrogenated oils like margarines Total Fat 2030 of kcal saturated should be less than 7 Trans fat should be less than 1 Cholesterol should be less than 300 mg per day moderation choose plant fat over animal fats liquid fats are more unsaturated and better for you than solid fats pick foods lowest in transfat then saturated fats then total fat Health concerns related to lipids high intake obesity heart disease cancers omega3 fatty acids supplements hemorrhagic stroke if there is excess Trans fatty Acids high blood cholesterol
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