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This 87 page Class Notes was uploaded by josue marine on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to at University at Buffalo taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
What is a species Species kind or type in Latin 1 Typological species each kind of organism is fixed and immutable and can be represented by an ideal individual the type specimen Linnaean Nomenclature 2 Biological definition of species Reproductively isolated group of actually interbreeding natural populations that produce fertile offspring Biological species reproductiver isolated populations Sympatric species Allopatric species ranges Overlap ranges don t overlap 3 A B 1 1 Easy Hard Problems in identifying species Polymorphic species species with many different types of individuals Sibling species Virtually identical species Ring Species continuous gradual shift in phenotype over a large range The end populations can t interbreed Asexual species can t use biological species definition Fossil species can t use biological species definition Reproductive isolating mechanisms A Prezygotic Barriers before zygote formation 1 Ecological Barriers Share territory but occupy different regions 2 Behavioral Barriers eg Temporal isolation Prezygotic Barriers cont 3 Mechanical Barriers Distinct reproductive parts 4 Gametic Barriers Mating occurs but Egg and sperm incompatible due to lack of interaction of receptors on the cell membranes Postzygotic Barriers after zygote 1 ybrid inviability fertilization occurs but zygote embryo or larva dies 2 ybrid Sterility Healthy hybrid unable to reproduce due abnormal gametes eg mules Populations do not strive to become species How are Species Formed Microevolution Mechanisms of Speciation A Allopatric speciation geographic speciation Two steps 1 Geographic separation of a once continuous population 2 Reproductive isolation produced during genetic drift or natural selection How Does Geographical Isolation Occur 1 Dispersal 2 Barriers 3Continental Drift ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION Tl 8 TI R Is Tl P B TI Po Sympatric Speciation Ecological speciation speciation Within a population occurring in a single habitat Mechanism b Sympatric speciation Sympatrie Speeiation 1 Instantaneous speciation new species formed in one generation Mutation Not probable Polyploidy Common in plants e g hybrid speeiation Hybrid Polyploidy eg Marsh grasses Spartina alterni am x Spartina maritina AmelfrA British Spartina tawnsendii 739quot J M SYMPATRIC SPECIATION 2 Gradual Speeiation Eg Ephritid y specializing on different host hawthorn trees Hawthorn TIME DOMAIN KINGDOM PHYLUM Division Class Order Family quotGenus 139E991 959a 19931010gical Spades I 39 Incipient Species V Race or Breed or Variety Ancestral population DEGREE OF DIFFERENTIATION TIME DOMAIN KINGDOM PHYLUM Division Class Order Family quotGenus 139E991 959a 19931010gical Spades I 39 Incipient Species V Race or Breed or Variety Ancestral population DEGREE OF DIFFERENTIATION ADAPTATION Adaptations the unique features of an organism which are specializations for their environment amp their way of life How Do Organisms Adapt A Argument by Design William Paley 1802 39 What we observe in nature is attributed to the 39 existence of a Deity Any given trait is designed for a purpose The purpose is predetermined The design is perfect The Watch Argument If you find a watch and have never seen one but examined it closely you could not help but believe it was designed and had a designer Similarly when you look at the intricacies of an organism you know it must be designed and that there was a designer Intelligent Design Difficulties with the argument 1 Organisms aren t perfect eg consider your eyes Intelligent Design Difficulties with the argument 1 Organisms aren t perfect eg consider your throat Hard palate Soft palate Palatine tonsil T0ngue Epiglottis Vocal fold r Trachea Esophagus Intelligent Design Difficulties with the argument 1 Organisms aren t perfect 39 Normal prostate eg consider your prostate Prostate cancer Intelligent Design Difficulties with the ost organisms that argument ever lived 1 Organisms aren t are extinct perfect Why would a perfect all powerful designer create imperfect organisms unless He isn t perfect He isn t allpowerful a limited god He isn t good but is merely testing you Or we humans just can t understand the rationale of a god Intelligent Design Difficulties with the argument 2 Vestigial organs eg Blind cave animals with functionless eyes Vestigial Organs Cont eg Snakes with one functionless lung r L L L L 77 L L L 7 LL L L 27 i L L L I u 7 I L L L r I39 r L L LA eg Birds with one functionless ovary Intelligent Design Difficulties with the argument 3 Embryological problems Ontongeny recapitulates phylogeny eg Whale blowholes Human gill structures g Human tails Intelligent Design Difficulties with the argument 4 The philosophical difficulties that you will ascribe anything that you don t understand into the category of a miracle You give up trying to understand Intelligent Design jig Mil t it l v quotNi V V v 1l l l i 1 l l i 4 I g l i i 1 i l I i i p 1 1 l l l l i l l l l i l l r l v i i i i eq I w How can something so complex as the eye evolve E 5 It is too complex It can t function unless it is perfect i All of the parts must have been created at once Stages of eye complexity in mollusks photoreceptor photoreceptor epnhenum eplthenum refractive lens layer by water lled pigmentcells cavity refractive lens ms cornea and nen39re cells W i W K 5 7 7 F A f t t 39 nerve 39 bres quotewe bres M op retina nerve epithelium epithelium photoreceptor layer retina W03 Vitreous body Pigment spot limpet Patela Pigment cup slit shell mollusk Pleurotoman a Simple optic cup quotpinholelens eye Nautilus Eye with primitive lens Murex a marine snail Complex eye octopus On Being Bed I Intelligent Design 5 The theological argument If you don t understand something and call it a miracle by God amp then later come to understand it there will be a slow erosion of God s powers Intelligent Design 6 PoliticalLegal argument Intelligent Design requires a designer who is God One cannot impose religion in schools Those schools who insist on teaching intelligent design are in violation of the United States Constitution Intelligent Design 7 More Scientific Arguments a There is no way to really test the argument It makes no predictions that can be falsified Hence it isn t science b There is an alternative explanation that is testable and has passed thousands of tests We call it evolution B Argument by Natural Selection Darwin amp Wallace Adaptations are characters which are the product of selection within a particular environment Natural selection has No foresight No predestined design No specific purpose DIVERGENT EVOLUTION Populations becoming progressively distinct the longer they are have been in separate gene pools BAC B C2B AA DIVERGENT EVOLUTION ADAPTIVE RADIATION many species with a common ancestor specializing for different life styles eg Limbs of mammals A Voes digging n Wolves running c Tigers prey capture e Bats fying s Seals swimming 1 Humans grasping o DIVERGENT EVOLUTION HOIVIOLOGOUS STRUCTURES result from adaptive radiation Common basic designbut function may differ Common embryological pattern Common ancestor which had the original design CONVERGENT EVOLUTION distantly related species independently evolve similar structures eg bird amp insect wings Analogous structures homoplasies Common function Different basic design Different embryology Design is not from a common ancestor CONVERGENT EVOLUTION eg Shape of swimming vertebrates Re tile Mammal CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Placentals Marsupials eg Placental amp lVIarsupiaI lVIammaIs show a general convergence in Flying phalanqec 39 Friam39m shape amp Woman Gmond hog Phasmmm Mrmcv39a feeding behavior Anteater U 39 1quot mcopl 9399 5l Antealer Marrnccc quot3 Mote NotaryEm M0138 Mame Mam mesjrcera 3 How Do New Characteristics Adaptations Originate Preadaptation modification of a preexisting structure for new uses eg Fish Tetrapod Bat fins legs wings All steps must have a selective advantage over previous steps How Are Structures Lost Once a structure is no longer used then the structure becomes more variable the selective pressure to maintain it is removed or lessened Then if the structure is potentially deleterious it uses energy it can get infected it gets in the way there will be a selective pressure to loose it I eg eyes of cave animals Not All Specializations Are Adaptations for a Given Environment Genetic drift can occur Pleiotropy can occur Sexual selection can occur Vestigial organs may exist Remember Some adaptations do more than one job TWO VIEWS OF EVOLUTION Phyletic Gradualism species change over time in a slow gradual process T A c A No Evolution Evolution i m Phyletic Gradualism e A Differentiation TWO VIEWS OF EVOLUTION Punctuated Equilibrium rapid changes interrupted by long periods of little change i lB Punctuated Equilibrium A Differentiation Evolutionary Pace Punctuated equilibrium Graduaiism 39 According to the Boshongo people of central Africa in the beginning there was only darkness water and the great god Bumba One day Bumba in pain from a stomach ache a vomited up the sun The sun dried up some of the water leaving land Still in pain Bumba vomited up the moon the stars and then some 39 5 animals The leopard the 7 Characteristics of Life 0 Cellular organization 0 Ordered Complexity 0 Sensitivity respond to stimuli 0 Growth development amp reproduction 0 Energy utilization r f a stasis l a ry Adaptation Today the Universe 98 Hydrogen 71 Helium 01 Other elements Galaxy Formation FROM THE DARK AGES After the emission ofthe cosmic microwave background radiation about 400000 years after the big bang the universe grew increasingly cold and dark But cosmic structure gradually evolved from the density fluctuations left over from the big bang 1 BILLION YE LLION YEARS 100 Ml EMISSION OF COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION DARK AGES FIRST STARS FIRST TO THE RENAISSANCE SUPERNOVAE The appearance ofthe first stars and protogalaxies AND BLACK HOLES PROTOGALAXY perhaps as early as 100 million years after the big bang set off MERGERS a chain of events that transformed the universe MODERN GALAXIES J JLUD UKI Em wgtw 55 2 6 22556 Formation of Core Mantle Crust 8 Atmosphere HEEITIJEIT Ema EEIiiEI mgr Elam I iuzgwi EH Mamie EEIiiEI MFJEIJEIT Mamla I512 E v C u 58 Shannan uncut The Oldest Rocks 44 BYA oldest evidence for life 38 billion years old I Acosta Gnoiss oldest intact rock 4 billion gears old Rocks older than 25 billion years I Inferred Exposed Jack Hill zircon oldest earth material 44 billion years old Ancient rocks olderthan 25 billion gears crop out or lieyust underneath the soil in rnang spots around the globe red and are probablg hidden below gounger rocks across even broader regions pink Zircon crgstals as old as those discovered in the Jack Hills ofWestern Australia may eventually be discovered at another ofthese locations Fossilized gravel bed in the Jack Hills above contained the world s oldest zir cons get discovered Geologists crushed and sorted hundreds of kilograms ofthis rock below to find the 20 crystals that bear signs ofcool conditions more than four billion years ago The First Fossils so liar i i o Bluegreen bacteria in stromatolites o 35 Bill on Years Ago 3154 39 f39 p quotquot STRUMATOLITES towering structures built bu colonies of microorganisms live todau in such places as Shark Bay about midwag along the western coast of Australia Ancient versions dating to about 35 billion gears ago are amongthe few putative signs of life that old that are still largelg unchallenged Evidence Of Even Older Fossils Chemical Fossils in Greenland Even earlier Claims for life have just been made Oct 19 2015 for zircons with organic traces at 41 BYA in Western Australian s Jack Hills EARTH IS UNIQUELY SUITED FOR LIFE 0 Right distance from the sun the temperature is right Not too hot H20 9 Steam Mt too cold H20 9 tce H20 9 Liquid EARTH IS UNIQUELY SUITED FOR LIFE Right Size amp Density so the gravity is right Not too smali Atmosphere 1 Not too large Atmosphere 1 Atmosphere with sunlight penetration FORMATION OF LIFE 0 Hypotheses on the origin 39l Divine CEEI39EDH FORMATION OF LIFE 0 Hypotheses on the origin 2 Spore Theory Panspermia FORMATION OF LIFE 0 Hypotheses on the origin 2 Spore Theory Panspermia cont AF xr O Directed Paxspermia an2 t I a FORMATION OF ILIFE o Hypotheses on the origin 3 Qi igiiJEi39iCJ Oj Earth a Spontaneous Generation an a an a a m EEGa IFFF a I I n I n z a n n n E in mi n i 1 i n u n a quota quot i 3939 Spailanzani s a Experiment r ih iiiii Fiaii pn IIj quot H FIBER ND EFEWI E39i Filth hEEtE S Eai gir wth FORMATION OF LIFE o Hypotheses on the origin 3 OriginataJ Oj Earth a JO 9 rrta H a 9 U 5 A n l asteur39s experiment 9 am gram OH quotAll 39I Swa n neck traps microorganisms 39l39ime N0 growth in nutrient l Boiling kills microorganisms I Microorganisms enter open flask i and grow rapidly I Time Iicrohial growl h 1998 Sinauer Associates Inc FORMATION OF LIFE o Hypotheses on the origin 3 Originated on Earth b Primary abiogenesis came from inorganic chemicals rin amp Halciane m r f QL1Q i FORMATION OF LIFE Primary Abiogenesis 1 Inorganic chemicals Chemical Evolution 2 Organic chemicals 3 Interacting Chem Sys reactions 4 Reproducing molecules a V0uti0n Cells 6 Multicellular organisms Primary Abiogenesis w tLEtzTOm lt JSPAHK l 39 DISCHARBF S1OPCOCK quotbe r05 TAKING SAMPLFS X 4 f 39 G r I I V I 39 39n 39 I 39 n I o t 39 r 39 I v u 5 I quot f A 39Y O m I l CON DENSF R I I quotnun U v wmcsa quot ROFL Experimental Evidence o Miller amp Urey s Experiments 1953 amp 1959 a Note gasses H20 NH3 CH4 H2 Primary Abiogenesis Experimental Evidence 0 Miller amp Urey s Experiments 1953 amp 1959 o Produced Several organic molecules quot including amino acids wmcza DROPJ IS 0 Many other gas mixtures produce similar products Primary Abiogenesis Expermemgn Evidence 0 Miller amp Urey s Experiments 1953 amp 2044 m H 39 DISCHARGF SIOPCOCK 20 H4 FOE TAKING x SAMPLES CONDENSFR wmm mom IS I 1 i i 39 J J U V U VJ V d 7 I d m l 5 w a M 77 w r r Vii 2 RSLiyj g HVU Primary Abiogenesis Experimental Evidence 0 Simple organic molecules have been detected in space 0 130 molecules detected including 9 Acetylene CZH2 9 Ammonia NH3 Primary Abiogenesis Experimental Evidence 9 Meteorites have simple organic molecules 9 Conclusion It is easy to produce organic molecules from l r u ic molecules a a A r r up 3 n 1 ypoth is supported Mars Rover found 3 4 and 6Carbon Chains of organic molecules Science March 27 2015 H a 1 C H H CH C H Chlorobenzene Recent experiments mimicking the conditions of asteroid bombardment on a solution with the simple organic molecule formamide produced all of the RNA nucleotides adenine guanine cytosine and uracil Science Dec 14 2014 Chemicals formed in the atmosphere or space and with rained down on earth and collected in tide pools where further evolution occurred Some scientists think that the earliest steps in evolution occurred in the hydrothermal vents at the bottom of the ocean Primary Abiogenesis Experimental Evidence 0 Polymerization experiments Simple sugars gt Complex carbohydrates Amino Acids Proteins Nucleotides Nucleic Acids E tty Acids 39 Lipids amp Glycerol Primary Abiogenesis Experimental Evidence 0 Polymerization can be accomplished easily by 39 Evaporation 0 Freezing Primary Abiogenesis Experimental Evidence o Interacting Chemical Systems Coacervates colloidal drops of organic materials in solution Uparlni Coacervate Properties Feeding Size of small cell Membrane Add enzymes Molecular reac ons Growth ampdivision Primary Abiogenesis Experimental Evidence 0 Reproduction DllA amp RNA both make copies of themselves using nucleotides feeding amp reproduction Primary Abiogenesis RNA WORLD 0 Perhaps FiRST CELIT m day s Cells Organic Soup i PreRNA World i 1 RNA World Autocatalytic A gt RNA Protein i A DNA RNA Protein i We Have a Long Way to Go quot H jg IrL V 39 A III 7k rr l 0 But scientists are now on the track to producing the rst celll
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