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Forestry / Wildlife and Fisheries

by: Emily Weiler

Forestry / Wildlife and Fisheries NRES 250

Marketplace > NRES 250 > Forestry Wildlife and Fisheries
Emily Weiler
Intro to Fish and Wildlife
Shelli Dubay

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Coping with Environmental Stress Forest Growth and Yield Terrestrial and Aquatic transitional habitat Wetland Loss Management of Terrestrial and Aquatic Transitional Habitats Management of ...
Intro to Fish and Wildlife
Shelli Dubay
Class Notes
coping, Environmental Stress Forest Growth Yield Terrestrial Aquatic transitional habitat Wetland Loss Management Terrestrial Aquatic Transitional Habitats Management Estuarine Habitat
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Weiler on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NRES 250 at a university taught by Shelli Dubay in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.


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Date Created: 10/27/15
Intro to Forest Ecosystem Science and Management Coping with Environmental Stress Trees and other sessile organisms have evolved strategies to deal with extreme variations in climate 0 Ex Trees drop their leaves in preparation for potential lethal winters By shedding foliage deciduous trees also avoid excessive buildups of snow and ice Many species will drop foliage to minimize water loss either during or before a drought Reason for vibrant leaf colors byproduct of essential recycling before leaf abandonment Chlorophyll and photosynthetic chemicals in leaves are broken down withdrawn and stored by tree for next years foliage Carotenoids chlorophyll degradation that unmasks yellow orange and red pigments Leaf senescence is one of many steps the tree takes to prepare for winter 0 Ex Evergreens process of cold hardening may include tissue dehydration changes in chemical make up of cell membranes increases in sugar concentration and appearance of certain dormancy proteins Forest Growth and Yield Site quality indicates the productive capacity of a speci c area of forest land for a particular species Site index the average height of dominant and codominant trees at a speci ed index age usually 50 years Height and age are used as coordinates for determining site index from a set of curves 0 Also correlated with soil factors and topography related to tree growth Concepts of a site index is not well suited to unevenaged stands and areas taken over by mixed species Stand density degree of stem crowding in a stand Stocking adequacy of a given stand density to meet some management objectives Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries An Integrated Approach Terrestrial and Aquatic Transitional habitat Terrestrial habitats upland areas Aquatic habitats lakes and streams Transitional habitats riparian zones along rivers and streams we margins of lakes ponds and other standingwater bodies and a variety of marshes bogs swamps coastal wetlands and beachocean interfaces Marshes low treeless we areas characteristically by sedges rushes and cattails Bogs wet areas with oating spongy mats of vegetation composed of sphagnum sedges and heaths Swamps wet areas containing trees Coastal transitional areas between land and ocean Many animals spend majority of life in transitional habitat 0 Ex amphibians reptiles greater yellow legs Marine openocean areas Can contain transitional habitats at the beachocean surface Estuaries transitional areas between marine and freshwater Freshwater classi cation scheme o Riverine associated with rivers and streams o Lacustrine lakes and ponds o Palustrine bogs marshes swamps Wetland usually referring to bogs marshes swamps or coastal wetlands Characteristics such as plants associated with water or soils that developed in wet areas Just because wetland is dry does not mean it s not a wetland Finding a common de nition for wetland is dif cult Wetlands are important in oodwater retention nutrient cycling and trapping groundwater recharge microclimate modi cation water puri cation provision of forage and water for domesticated livestock and other bene cial functions Wetland Loss Over the last 200 years housing construction harbor building agricultural encroachment diking of river and a variety of other human activities have lead to extensive loss of wetlands A large percentage of commercially important marine species live a portion of their lives in coastal wetlands and estuaries Waterfowl and shore birds are forced to move to smaller and smaller areas 0 Less spaces dense population diseases Serve as natural purifying system 0 Less wetland more pollution Loss of wetlands cause negative ecological rami cations as well as economical Humans are not above in which the ecosystem they live in Management of Terrestrial and Aquatic Transitional Habitat Wetlands help animals whether they re natural or arti cial Serve as important nursery and food production area A variety of vegetation is offered in a wetland that doesn t grow anywhere else Fed upon by birds muskrats and other small mammals 0 Ex Too many muskrats reduced cattails 0 Not enough muskrats too many cattails Fire is also used to manage wetlands Dead vegetation is burned over ice or water to increase nutrients recycling Levelditching ditches are dug in wetlands in zigzag patterns Techniques used to develop deeper areas Implementing changes to wetland must be done very carefully Smaller wetlands may be dewatered if too large of a ditch is dug Water level is used for both natural and arti cial wetlands Can be used to control soil acidity attract different wildlife species and plants Arti cial wetlands can be created using dams or intentionally ooding an area using a dike system Can manipulate water levels easily But plants and animals need to be introduced Much more human interest in restoring wetlands such as marshes and swamps Management of Estuarine Habitats Estuaries are important reproductive and nursery habitat for many marine shes crustaceans molluscans and other aquatic species Many birds also use habitat for all or part of their lives 0 The value of estuarine habitat is nally being recognized as economically and aesthetically important Suspected global climate change may directly affect estuaries which will then affect aspects of the marine biotic community that are dependent as estuaries in some life stages


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