BIOL 2170 Chapter Twelve Notes
BIOL 2170 Chapter Twelve Notes BIOL 2170
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by chelsea1023 on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2170 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Deborah Chadee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, cells, and Inheritence in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter Twelve DNA Replication and Manipulation DNA Replication 0 Two strands of DNA separate and become parent strands 0 Parent strands serve as templates for creation of new daughter strands o Bases are paired AT and GC 0 Can be conservative or semiconservative In replication DNA is synthesized in the 5 to 3 end Can be continuous or discontinuous replication Proofreading is done after synthesis to ensure that the DNA was translated correctly If not it is changed Replication requires 0 Parent strand 0 DNA polymerase o Topoisomerase o Helicase 0 Nucleotide bases Replication of circular DNA starts at origin and moves around the chromosome in both directions Telomerase lengthens DNA that was previously shortened in DNA replication DNA manipulation 0 PCR polymerase chain reactions O Amplifies a sequence of DNA Heated to separate DNA into two strands denaturation Cooled to allow primers to anneal to their complimentary sequence annealing DNA polymerase creates two new DNA strands in the 5 to 3 direction extension Requires a template DNA DNA polymerase the four nucleotide bases ACTG and two primers Taq polymerase used since it can survive and function at high temperatures Gel Electrophoresis O 0 Samples are loaded into wells in the gel DNA moves toward positive side smaller fragments move farther than larger ones Restriction Digests Enzymes O Cleave DNA Southern Blots 0 Restriction enzyme added Gel electrophoresis Denature DNA and blotted onto filter paper Filter paper is removed after blotting Paper is put in bag containing solution with single stranded probe and probe sticks to complimentary fragments Filter paper is exposed to xray film and the films over each band are darkened Sanger Sequencing 0 Label nucleotides with fluorescent dyes 0 Try to find sequence of daughter strand to determine sequence of parent strand Recombinant DNA similar to crossing over DNA is cleaved and removed so new DNA can be added in its place