BIOL 2170 Chapter Eleven Notes
BIOL 2170 Chapter Eleven Notes BIOL 2170
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by chelsea1023 on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2170 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Deborah Chadee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, cells, and Inheritence in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter Eleven Cell Division Mitosis o Creates two daughter cells o All cells are genetically identical 0 Daughter cells are diploid Cell division process where one cell becomes two daughter cells Binary fission how prokaryotic cells divide Mitosis and cytokinesis how eukaryotic cells divide Cell cycle in Eukaryotes GO phase interphase gap phase not actively dividing 61 phase interphase gap 1 S phase interphase DNA synthesis 62 phase interphase gap 2 getting ready for mitosis M phase mitosis and cytokinesis ce divides Mitotic spindles are made up of microtubules Stages of mitosis o Prophase o Chromosomes condense tightly wound o Prometaphase o Microtubules of the mitotic spindle attach to chromosomes 0 Nuclear envelope starts to break down Metaphase o Chromosomes align in center of cell Anaphase 0 Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles Telophase 0 Nuclear envelope reforms o Chromosomes decondense Cytokinesis 0 Physical cell split into two cells 0 Separation and reformation of cell membranes Kinetochore protein dense region on centromere Meiosis Creates four daughter cells Each daughter cell is a haploid 23 chromosomes Cells are genetically unique Creation of gametes Two separate processes meiosis 1 and meiosis 2 Meiosis 1 first round of nuclear division DNA duplicated once cell divides twice Chiasmata site of crossing over Crossing over mix of genetic information resulting in genetic diversity among cells Female gametes are created before birth using meiosis Male gametes are created all throughout life using meiosis CDK cycin dependent kinase Kinases phosphorylate proteins Inhibiting CDK stops cell cycle progression wouldn t make it to S phase DNA damage checkpoint check for damage to CDK and p53 Cancer 0 Oncogene cancer causing gene 0 Protooncogenes norma genes that could become cancerous if mutated 0 Tumor supressors work to prevent tumors from forming or growing p53 and p21