Promises and Peril of the Interwar Period
Promises and Peril of the Interwar Period HIST 102 011
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HIST 102 011
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Strickland on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 102 011 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Daniel Snyder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
HIST 102 Promise and Peril of the Interwar Period The 1920s and 30s Interwar is a misnomer since people did not realize this was between wars since WW I had yet to occur Period of civilizational collapse from Belle Epoque Era preWWI to the chaos post WWII Some historians consider this period from 19141945 as one long war since not all con icts ended ChinaJapan con ict for example Vest frame to look at this is Western democracy and how it s called into question by WWII people questioned what it said about democracy if governments could lead their people into such a terrible and horrible con ict WWI The Vibraney of Democracy The Roaring Twenties in the US Proved to many Westerners that democracy could thrive Jazz Age developed in New Orleans and spread throughout US Era of Prohibition Era of the neverending party Lost Generation writers trying to nd themselves postWWI Industrial production and consumption goes up American Dream F Scott Fitzgerald Jack Dempsey and Babe Ruth Architectural developments Chrysler Building Racial division Offered vision of democracy that was possible and could recover In Germany The Phases of the Weimar Republic 19181919 Weimar Republic formed amidst revolution 19191923 New Slate lSt democracy but also in crisis economic in ation from trying to pay off the reparations 19241929 Golden Thirties economic situation gets better Oct 19291933 Republic begins to fall as global economy crashes and Hitler and the Nazis rise to power The Disillusionment of War German art is pessimistic and depressing 0 George Grosz s The Lovesick Man 0 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner s SelfPortrait as a Soldier 0 Otto Dix Bauhaus Movement 0 Architects focused mainly on function 0 Parallels thoughts in Germany about democracy if it is not functional get rid of it The New Woman 0 Idea of female empowerment in face of claims that male hostility is what brought about the aggression and con ict of WWI s worst battles 0 Rigid ideas beginning to be questioned and broken down Marlene Dietrich Weimar Film 0 The Cabaret of DrCaligari and Metropolis 0 Like art is pessimistic and depressing o Came to be known as expressionism as an expression of the soul Like US suggests democracy is not yet dead until it falls in 1933 Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolini Brutally affected by the war creates breeding ground for overthrow of democracy Ruinous to culture and economy in ation especially due to disunification of the country and weak central government Mussolini a newspaper editor questions democracy especially whether it can protect the people from communism meaning that Italy needed a strong central government Emphasizes nationalism and its connection to Rome Black Shirts followers of Mussolini and fascism modernity He appeals to disaffected young men who were thoroughly average or below average by giving them something that is theirs What is Fascism Response to mass politics antidemocratic antiindividualistic anticommunist but NOT anticapitalist Politics of resentments against elite oppressors reparations in Germany for example Pitted people against one thing communists or Jews elected their leader democratically reveals the very thin line between American politics and fascismsocialism and how easily it could tip either way individual serves state nationalistic militaristic and led by charismatic leader Hitler or Mussolini Is this different from totalitarian communism The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Civil war between reds and whites Bolshevik vs everyone else Proves that what Lenin did was possible anywhere overthrow of the hierarchy and return to equality Promise of Russian Revolution 0 Withdraw from war loses land and resources in Treaty of BrestLitovsk 0 Begin to give power to the proletariat class democracy for everyone 0 Capitalists disliked this because workers needed to be exploited by hierarchy according to Lenin Civil War 19181922 0 Reds won Civil War through organization and control of more advantageous territory Moscow and Petrograd for example 0 War communism products used to fuel army at expense of peasants o Allies including US fought on side of whites and lost New Economic Policy NEP o More capitalist policy in order to industrialize Russia 0 Series of concessions that allow peasants to acquire property incentive to accumulate surplus in order to earn capital and revitalize the economy 0 After revitalizing Russian economy will lead to workers paradise as promised by Marx The New Bolshevik Man and Woman 0 Intellectual and Spiritual liberation for peasants as independent individuals 0 Struggle for Power After Lenin s Death 1924 O O Lenin dies from effects of stroke leaving his two lieutenants Stalin and Trotsky to fight over power Trotsky was charismatic and more wellknown than the colorless administrative and paranoid Stalin but Stalin like Edgar Hoover of the FBI kept files on weaknesses of his opponents political blackmail Stalin emerges as leader in 1928 which led to totalitarian communism rather than LeninTrotsky s communism Trotsky is exiled and will be killed by Stalin s agents in Mexico 0 Stalin Transforms Russia 0 O O 0 Five Year Plans to x Russian economy and mobilize for industrialization collectivism Leads to famine due to political decision to create surplus through exploitation of collectivism especially the kulaks since they were peasants that were better off Industrialized Russia Magnitogorsk through collectivism Stalin s purges and show trials of the 193 Os Trials of the revolution by a paranoid Stalin similar to French Revolution s Terror 0 Stalin s T otalitarianism O O O O O Propaganda State manufactured famine Cult of Personality Purges and show trials due to Stalin s paranoia Execution of millionsexile to Gulags
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