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Week of 3/21/2016

by: Phillip Fishbein

Week of 3/21/2016 Chem 1220(Chemistry, Dr. Clark, General Chemistry)

Phillip Fishbein
GPA 3.722

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About this Document

Some overlap from before spring break. Covers Effecting Solubility to the end of Chapter 19 and the start of Chapter 23.
General Chemistry
Dr. Clark
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phillip Fishbein on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1220(Chemistry, Dr. Clark, General Chemistry) at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Clark in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.

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Date Created: 03/25/16
o Effecting Enthropy  Volume  Larger = higher entropy  Number of particles  More particles = higher entropy  Temperature changes  Higher temperature = higher entropy  Arrangement of particles  Weaker bonds = higher entropy  More atoms = higher entropy o Not as much as more particles  Molar Mass  Larger mass = higher entropy o Motion of particles  Translational  Moving from one point to another  Vibrational  Shortening and lengthening of bonds, including changes in bond angle  Rotational  Spinning around an axis through the particle o State of matter can restrict particle motion o ∆ S =∑ nS 0(products− ∑ mS (reactants)  S refers to standard conditions (stp)  1 mole, 1 atm, 298 K o Predicting Entropy Changes of the System  Moles of Gas Increase in moles of gas tend to increase entropy of the system Decrease in moles of gas tend to decrease entropy of the system  Entropy of the surroundings change Ensures total entropy is increasing o Josiah Willard Gibbs  Theoretical basis for chemical thermodynamics  Gibbs Free Energy (ΔG)  Gave calculation of how system changes entropy of the surroundings −∆ H sys  ∆ Stotal +∆ Ssys T  ∆ G=∆H−T ∆S( providedonexam) o kJ/mol o Don’t fo0get to change ΔS from J/mol to kJ/mol! Changes to ΔG at standard conditions (stp)  Interpreting Gibbs Free Energy If negative, process is spontaneous If positive, process is not spontaneous If zero, process is at equilibrium  Free Energy and Temperature Exothermic processes increase the entropy of the surroundings o More so if surroundings at lower temperature ΔH ΔS ΔG - + Always positive + - Never negative More negative at - - lower temperatures More negative at + + higher temperatures  Free Energy and Equilibrium Constant Concentration can affect spontaneity Conversion for ΔG and ΔG 0 o ∆ G=∆G +RT lnQ;R=8.314 J ;T=temperature mol∗K o Q is same as in equilibrium At Equilibrium 0 o ∆ G=∆G +RT ln K=0 o ∆ G =−RT lnK (provided onexam) Thermodynamics and Kinetics o Predicts the spontaneity of a reaction, not its speed o Thermodynamics refers to products and reactants o Kinetics refers to the reaction progress Chapter 23: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry  The Transition Metals o Occupy the d block of the periodic table o Most often found in minerals o Commonly cations  Often +2 or +3 oxidation, but can be more  Use oxidation to determine electron configuration and vice versa  Need to know shapes of d-orbitals (see below)  Two classes o Along axes (2 orbitals) o Offset from axes (3 orbitals)  Complex Ions o Formation constants (K )fare often huge in water o Transition metals act as Lewis acids o Called Metal Complex or Coordination Compound o Molecules or ions that bond to the metal are called ligands  They coordinate to the metal  Are Lewis bases Hydration vs. Coordination Complex o Hydration is surrounding of ions by water o Transition metals have d-orbitals to accept Lewis bases  Ligands coordinate into much more well-defined geometry than hydration  [Co(NH 3 4l2]Cl or [Co(NH3 4Cl2] Brackets signify what’s coordinating around the metal Charge is sum of oxidation number of the atoms in the complex o i.e. [Rh(NH 3 5l](NO )3 2  NO has -1, so two makes -2 3  Complex has +2 charge  NH 3as 0  Cl has -1  2+1=+3 for Rh o [Cr(H 2) 4l 2Cl  Charge for Cr must be +3  Coordination number of 6 Number of ligands in the complex 3  3 d-electrons in the complex (d ) Use charge to get electron configuration Alfred Werner o Put description of Coordinate complexes o Originally with normal salt * n solute  i.e. CoC3 * 6 NH 3 o Learned correct structure of [Co(NH ) ]Cl instead of [Co(NH ) Cl ](NH ) 3 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 from adding AgNO to3produce AgCl solid Ligands o Monodentate  Only coordinates to the metal at one spot on molecule o Bidentate & Polydentate  Can coordinate to the metal at multiple spots  i.e. Ethylenediamine (en) below  Formation Constants o Complex with larger formation constant forms more favorably o K fiffer because of Gibbs Free Energy  Chelate Effect (kee-late)  Larger K fave larger change in entropy  Chelating Agents o Remove or separate metal ions from a solution o i.e. EDTA removes poisonous trace metals in food o


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