Psychology 220 Week 9 Notes
Psychology 220 Week 9 Notes Psych 220
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #9 NOTE: Week #8 (March 14-18) was Spring Break for UNM 3/22 Chapter 9: The Play Years: Cognitive Development Overview Piaget’s account for early childhood cognitive development (preoperational) o Conservation o Centration o Egocentrism Recent evidence Theory of mind development Preoperational Period – Piaget Preoperational intelligence: includes language and imagination (also involves symbolic thought) but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible at this stage. -Between 2 and 6 years -Transitional period -Overcomes limitations that stand in the way of true operations -Mental manipulation of symbols -Preoperational thought is a replica of concrete actions, events Symbolic thought: accomplishment of preoperational intelligence allowing a child to think symbolically, including understanding that words can refer to things not seen. Example: a flag is a symbol for a country Symbolic thought helps explain animism: the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive Obstacles to Logic Centration: the inability to focus attention on more than one aspect of an object or event at a time. Involves: -Tendency to focus on surface appearance, neglecting other features -Inability to simultaneously consider several features of an object -Focus on static reasoning rather than transformations Characteristics: Egocentrism: thinking about the world from own personal perspective Example: a toddler boy buying his mom a Tonka truck for her birthday Focus on appearance: ignoring attributes that are not apparent Example: a girl gets a short hair cut and worries she’ll turn into a boy Static reasoning: way of thinking that nothing changes; the world is stable, unchanging, and always in the currently encountered state. Example: child cannot imagine his mother was once a child too Irreversibility: thinking that nothing can be undone. Thinking something cannot be restored after a change is made Example: girl cries because her mother puts lettuce on her sandwich; rejects the sandwich even after the lettuce is removed. Failure to consider both centration and conservation dimensions simultaneously: o Number: length, not width o Liquid: height, not width o Solid: length, not width Cant compensate for transformation of one dimension with change on another Example: 9 wooden beads: 7 brown and 2 white Preoperational children center on only one level of categorization at a time; i.e. brown vs. white or all wooden Issues of Conservation Conservation: the amount of something stays the same despite changes in appearance Object permanence: -Many properties of objects are not conserved: Identity Amount Number Matter -By the end of this period children realize certain qualities of objects are conserved–not all. Appearance vs. Reality -Preoperational children have difficulty distinguishing between the way things seem and the way things are Example: the other toddlers call a boy toddler with long hair a girl Centration & Appearance vs. Reality Tasks -Preoperational children focus on the static state, not the transformation Sponge that looks like a rock Cat with a dog mask -They can’t recognize that something could look like one thing, but be another -Preoperational thought, representation, is static and immobile Series of un-integrated state representations – what you see is what it is Example: Seriation Tasks o Failure to depict successive movements of bar from vertical to horizontal o Difficulty categorizing on a consistent basis – shift from one quality to the next *Can be fully completed and understood by the age of 7 Egocentrism -The tendency to center on oneself; seeing the world from their own perspective -Egocentric with respect to representations 3 Mountain Problem: spatial perspective taking (snow-top, house on top, church on top) -Requires the child to simultaneously look at the display from a given position and represent the appearance of the display from another (the doll’s). Collective Monologue/Egocentric Conversation Transductive Thought -The belief that two events correlating in time have a cause- effect relationship with each other Example: a chicken has feathers – if it has feathers it’s a chicken Two Broad Phases of Preoperational Period 2-4 years: consistently preoperational 5-6 years: giving way to true operations Collective monologue disappears Improvements in seriation Consistent classification Number conservation *Piaget’s account has been largely upheld *BUT: simplifying the tasks usually lead to younger age of passing this task Social Learning -Vygotsky Mentors: o Present challenges o Offer assistance o Add crucial information o Encourage motivation Scaffolding: temporary support tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process. Over imitation: a meaningless habit not relevant to learned behaviors that is developed by children from their eagerness to learn from mentors. According to Vygotsky, language advances thinking in two ways: 1. Private speech: internal dialogue that occurs when someone talks to his or her self; used to review, decide, and explain events to themselves. 2. Social mediation: a person explaining concepts and ideas through words to another person STEM Learning (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) o Count objects, with one number per item o Remember times and ages o Understand sequences o Know the hierarchy of numbers Social Cognition -Thoughts and knowledge about people ad their actions Joint attention: understand that people see and attend to things; showing at 18 months -Infants in their 2dyear of life begin to realize that people have “inner experience” Theory-Theory: the idea that children try to explain everything they see and hear by constructing their own theories; making sense of their experiences. Example: a child thinks thunder occurs when God is rearranging furniture Theory of Mind: a person’s theory of what other people might be thinking. Children must realize others are not thinking the same thoughts as them. -Realization seldom occurs before the age of 4 -A kind of social cognition; what we think and believe is actually reality -Assigning mental states to self and others -Using mental states to explain action -Recognizing self, others as “things that think, believe, imagine, intend” False Belief Task: contrast erroneous mental impression with a known reality Example: there is a crayon box with M&M’s in it. 3 year olds fail; experimenter asks what the child thinks is in the box, the child thinks crayons are in the box, he/she see M&M’s, then say they always thought M&M’s were in the box 4 to 5 year olds pass: think crayons are in the box, see the M&M’s, still knew that crayons should have been in the box Language Learning Fast mapping: speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning. Example: connecting new animal names close to already known animals, save the details. The “tiger” is easy to map if the child already knows “lion” Logical extension: after learning a word, children use it to describe objects in the same category. Grammar mistakes: Over regularization- the application of rules of grammar to the exceptions Example: foots, tooths, mouses Pragmatics- differences in vocabulary and tone based on who you are communicating with, i.e. your best friend vs. your boss 5 strategies for language learning: 1. Code-focused teaching a. Transition of spoken to written language 2. Book reading a. Aids vocabulary and conversation 3. Parent education a. Stimulate cognition 4. Language enhancement a. Zone of proximal development 5. Preschool programs Early Childhood Schooling Homes and schools Child-centered programs o Montessori schools- offer early childhood education o Reggio Emilia- encourages early creativity Teacher directed programs 3/24 Chapter 10: The Play Years: Psychosocial Development Overview: Emotional development Play Parenting Moral development Aggression Emotional Development Strategies for emotionally controlling children vary culturally Emotional regulation: the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed The ability to delay gratification Emotional control Preeminent psychosocial task between 2-6 years Effortful control: regulating actions and emotions through control, not natural inclination Developmental Sequence 12-18 months: begin to help those in distress -Respond with active caregiving to distress -BUT: don’t know others have different inner experience comforting is egocentric 18-24 months: knows others have feelings independent of their own -Develop true concern for victim -Tailor helping to individual Self-concept: a person’s understanding of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits. Guilt vs. Shame Guilt: comes from within Shame: comes from external factors; others Initiative v. guilt: Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis where children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them Motivation -Impulse propelling someone to act Intrinsic: a drive/reason to pursue a goal coming from within Extrinsic: a drive/reason to pursue a goal that arises from outside reinforcements like praise or a desired object *Imaginary friends are a characteristic of intrinsic motivation inside children to stimulate play and creativity Emotional Balance Psychopathology: illness of the mind or psyche -Various cultures and societies have concepts of psychopaths -Diagnoses and symptoms are influenced by culture Externalizing problems: difficulty with emotion regulation. -Causing someone to express powerful feelings by bursting out uncontrollably or breaking things. Internalizing problems: difficulty with emotion regulation. -Turning one’s emotional stress inward, causing physical pain. *Although males tend to externalize and females internalize, children of both sexes do both Play Playmates (preferably peers) have a large impact on a child’s social development Play is seen as experience-expectant however some aspects of play are experience-dependent Pretend play: when a child is alone and amuses him/her self with toys, games, etc. Social play: when children interact and play together. 5 kinds: 1. Solitary –playing alone, unaware of the others around them to play with 2. Onlooker –watching others play 3. Parallel –playing with similar toys but not together 4. Associative –sharing play material but play is not reciprocal 5. Cooperative –playing together, taking turns, creating games Sociodramatic play: when children act out various roles and themes in stories they create Gender Development Sex differences: biological differences in organs, hormones, and body type between male and female Gender differences: cultural differences prescribed based on roles and behaviors expected males vs. females 6-12 months: infants begin to differentiate male and female faces -Link masculine voices to males and feminine voices to females 2.5 years: labeling self and others as male or female -Playing more with same-gender toys -More positive contacts toward same-sex peers 3-4 years: -Understanding gender stability -Understanding gender stereotypes -Talk about gender play preferences 4-5 years: achieve gender constancy -Permanence of categorical sex -Difference in aggression / ways of helping Theories of Gender Development: 1. Psychoanalytic Phallic stage: from 3-6 years when sex organs become focus of concern and pleasure -In this stage, boys typically suffer from Oedipus complex; the unconscious desire to replace their father and win over their mother’s romantic love. -In this stage, girls typically suffer from Electra complex; the unconscious desire to replace their mother and win over their father’s romantic love. Superego: judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents Identification: attempt to defend one’s self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else 2. Behaviorism -Gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment -Social learning is an extension of behaviorism -Parents, teachers, peers, etc. all reward behavior that is gender appropriate Example: a girl getting complimented when she wears a dress but not when she wears pants Example: a boy asking for a train and doll for his birthday but only getting the train 3. Cognitive Theory -Apparent at the age of 5 Gender schema: general belief based on one’s experiences in understanding male-female differences -Since a child sees the world from an egocentric view in this stage, males and females are categorized as opposites 4. Sociocultural Theory -Stresses importance of cultural values and customs gender roles most apparent in this theory 5. Universal Theories -Humanism stresses the hierarchy of needs: Survival Safety Love and belonging Respect Self-actualization -Love and belonging is where children further gender roles by wanting to be a part of same sex groups. Not because they dislike the other sex, but because it satisfies their need for belonging the best. Parenting Styles 3 basic (non-abusive) styles 4 main features that differentiate the styles o Warmth o Discipline strategies o Communication o Expectations for maturity 1. Authoritarian –high behavioral standards -Strict punishment -Demand maturity -Little warmth -Stress obedience -Inflexible (rules/sympathy) -Little parent-child communication Children are generally socially inept, lacking spontaneity, and rely on authority to decide what is right. 2. Permissive -indulgent -High parent-child communication -Little discipline -Little or no rules/control -Warm, nurturing Children are generally immature, have difficulty controlling their impulses, and don’t accept responsibility for their actions. 3. Authoritative -encouraging -Set limits/enforce rules -Communicate with child -More democratic/flexible -Warm, nurturing Children are generally self-reliant, self-controlled, content, and curious. A fourth style: Neglectful/uninvolved parenting: parents are indifferent to their children and unaware of what’s going on in their lives. *This style puts children at risk of injury and abuse in childhood as well as lifelong. Moral Development -Values, judgments, behaviors about emotional regulation, sex differences, and parenting practices. Empathy: understanding of people’s feelings and concerns when they differ from one’s own Antipathy: a feeling of dislike or hatred for another person Prosocial Behavior: sharing, helping, comforting, showing compassion; extending helpfulness and kindness without any obvious benefit to oneself Increases with age in early childhood First acts are physical By 18-24 months comforting will assume a variety of forms BUT: kids often find other’s distress amusing 2 ndand 3 year: less likely to show empathy when they are the cause of the distress Antisocial Behavior: verbal insults, social exclusion, physical assault; actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person In some ways, antisocial behavior occurs naturally ownership in toddlers Indicate a failure of empathy *In general, children become more prosocial and less antisocial as they mature Aggression -Behavior aimed at harming another *Aggression intensifies during the second year 2-4 years: Higher amounts of verbal aggression Lesser amounts of physical aggression 3-6 years: Hostile aggression appears Instrumental aggression: hurting someone else in order to obtain something -Peer directed aggression that emerges as infants become interested in their own possessions -There is a rapid increase in instrumental aggression between the ages of 1 and 2 -Most peer conflicts in 2ndand 3 years concern object- possession struggle Hostile aggression: hurting another to establish dominance Reactive aggression: an impulsive verbal or physical retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action Relational aggression: nonphysical aggression designed to inflict psychological harm on the victim Bullying aggression: unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attacks usually on unlikely victims who are not able to defend themselves *The ability to delay gratification and language development help inhibit aggressive acts Language delays peer relationship problems aggressive conflicts Sex difference in aggression: First 3 years –few if any differences By the age of 4 –boys show more aggression than girls; but girls develop relational aggression more often Discipline 4 main techniques: Corporal punishment: physically hurting the body as punishment (slapping, spanking, etc.) Psychological control: threatening and reliance on child’s feelings of guilt and remorse as well as gratitude towards parents Time-out: separation from other people for a specified amount of time Induction: extensive talking in order for child to understand why a certain behavior was wrong
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