Gender and Sexuality Notes
Gender and Sexuality Notes SOC 201S
Popular in AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Popular in Sociology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asif Khan on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 201S at Old Dominion University taught by JONATHAN W LOPEZ in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY in Sociology at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Gender and Sexuality Notes The Social Construction of Gender gt Sex and Gender 0 SexBiological differences between males and females I Refers to who we are as males and females 0 GenderSocial and cultural significance we attach to those presumed biological differences I Refers to what we become as men and women which occurs through socialization 0 Many people exhibit physical characteristics that we presume to belong to the opposite sex I Approximately 51 million Americans who cannot easily be categorized as either male or female gt GenderRole Socialization o Expressions of masculinity and femininity are developed and reinforced through socialization I Boys must be masculine active aggressive tough daring and dominant I Girls must be feminine soft emotional sweet and submissive 0 Gender Displays I We receive positive and negative feedback based on our gender performance I Working out what it means to be feminine and masculine through interactions with others is an ongoing project I We depend on established cues to recognize someone s sex gt Gender Roles in the United States 0 Women s Gender Roles I Women continue to face pressure to be thin beautiful submissive sexy and maternal I Films television programs and magazine ads contribute to an idealized image of feminine beauty I Unrealistic idealized image of feminine beauty 0 Dove s research for Campaign for Real Beauty found that only 2 of women around felt comfortable describing themselves as beautiful W I Study of 20th century children s books found that women were significantly underrepresented in central roles and in illustrations 0 Men s Gender Roles I Stayathome fathers an unusual phenomenon I One of the most powerful expectations for males is to be tough physically and emotionally in sports in work and in relationships I Nonconformists often face criticism and humiliation gt Gender Across Cultures 0 Gender expectations and performance vary across time and place I Gender roles vary greatly from one environment economy and political system to the next I Some cultures accept the existence of three or four genders I Findings of Mead and Sanday confirm in uential role of culture and socialization in genderrole differentiation Working for Change Women s Movements gt FeminismBelief in social economic and political equality for women gt The First Wave 0 Feminist movement in US born in upstate New York in the town of Seneca Falls in 1848 I 1872 Susan B Anthony arrested for attempting to vote I 1920 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote in national elections gt The Second Wave 0 Emerged in the 1960s and came into full force in the 1970s I Friedan The Feminine Mystique 1963 I de Beauvoir The Second Sex 1952 I Millett Sexual Politics 1970 0 Groups sought to elevate awareness that women shared problem that has no name I Whether women have control over their reproductive rights and their bodies has played significant role in this movement gt The Third Wave 0 1990s Feminism ventured into cultural sphere to embrace a multiplicity of voices expressions and experiences I Shift to a celebration of difference I Embracing multiplicity of identities led to a commitment to social justice and a global perspective Social Construction of Sexuality gt SexualityDenotes our identities and activities as sexual beings gt Sexuality and Identity 0 Sexual expression is situated within and an outgrowth of existing social cultural and historical processes Sexual OrientationCategories of people to whom we are sexually attracted HeterosexualThose who are sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex HomosexualThose who are attracted to members of the same sex BisexualThose who are attracted to both men and women TransgenderPeople who appear to be biologically one sex but who identify with the gender of another 0 Asexual OOOOO o HeteronormativityCultural presupposition that heterosexuality is appropriate standard for sexual identity and practice and that alternative sexualities are deviant abnormal or wrong I Form of ethnocentrism Sexuality in Action gt People often ignorant of and curious about actual sexual practices 0 The Kinsey Reports 1948 1953 provided earliest indepth research studies on people s sexual practices 0 National Survey of Family Growth provides recent data and includes detailed information on actual sexual practices I Numbers of oppositesex partners I Samesex contact I Age and willingness of first sexual contact I Birth control practices Gender and Inequality gt Parson and Bales Families need instrumental and expressive leader 0 Instrumental LeaderPerson who bears responsibility for completion of tasks focuses on more distant goals and manages external relationship between the family and other social institutions 0 Expressive LeaderPerson who bears responsibility for maintenance of harmony and internal emotional affairs of family gt Sociologists now argue that such separate abilities are social constructs not innate traits 0 Key sociological task is to analyze how gender expectations are created and maintained gt Sexism and Discrimination o SexismIdeology that one sex is superior to the other 0 Institutional DiscriminationPattem of treatment that systematically denies a group access to resources and opportunities as part of society s normal operations gt Women in the United States 0 Labor Force Participation I Over 58 percent of adult women in the United States were in the labor force in 2011 43 in 1970 I Occupational segregation confines women to sextyped women s jobs I Women underrepresented in men s jobs which offer greater financial rewards and prestige I Glass CeilingInvisible barrier that blocks promotion of qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual s gender race or ethnicity 0 Income I Women do not earn as much on average as men even in the same occupations I Occupational segregation does not explain wage gap Home and Work I In dualincome families fathers do an average of just over 9 hours of housework per week compared to over 15 hours for women I Even in households where she works and he does not wives still do more housework 0 Second ShiftDouble burden of work outside the home followed by child care and housework faced by many women Politics I Higher percentage of women vote than men but women remain underrepresented in elected office In 2013 I Only 5 of the nation s 50 states had a female governor Progress however has been made I Sandra Day O Connor became nation s rst female justice in 1981 I By 2013 a record 18 percent of the members of Congress were women gt Violence Against Women 0 Full extent of such violence unknown because such crimes often go unreported and unrecognized I Global survey found likelihood of experiencing physical or sexual violence varied significantly from place to place I Women and girls of all ages are subject to acts of violence I Among college women who were victims of a forced sexual assault only 13 reported it to police or campus security gt Women Around the World 0 O O 0 Opportunities for women vary significantly around the world Grow half the world s food but rarely own land Are onethird of world s paid labor force but are generally in lowestpaying jobs Feminization of poverty is global phenomenon