Chapter 8 The Periodic Table Structure and Trends
Chapter 8 The Periodic Table Structure and Trends Chem 111-003
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sharneece Gary on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111-003 at University of South Carolina taught by Dmitry V Peryshkov in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter 8 The Periodic Table Structure and Trends Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table The periodic table can be divided into four blocks of elements elements with highest energy electrons in 5 p d or f subshells 0 Groups 1amp2 are 5 0 Groups 312 are d 0 Groups 1318 are p o The two rows separated from the rest of the periodic table are f The ordering of orbitals with respect to energy is reflected in the periodic table Example Using only the periodic table determine the electron configuration of Al Ti Br and Sr Al Ne 352 3p1 Sr Kr 552 Ti Ar 452 3d2 Br Ar 452 3d10 4p5 o The trick is to read from left to right to know the order in which the 5dampp goes Also know that the d is always one level behind the 5 amp p For example 452Id10 4p5 Test Your Skills 0 Using only the periodic table determine the electron configuration of Si amp Ba 39 Si Ne 352 3p2 Ba Xe 652 Valence Orbitals and Electrons The valence electrons are those with the highest principle quantum number and any electrons in an unfilled subshell from a lower shell The valence orbital of an atom are the orbitals of those subshells that hold the valence electrons Example I Al Ne 352 3p1 Valence electrons 3 I Sr Kr 552 Valence electrons 2 I Ti Ar 452 3d2 Valence electrons 4 I Br Ar 452 3d10 4p5 Valence electrons 7 o The valence electron is 7 and not 17 because the d oribital is completely full so in this case you would not count it Only count the 5 and p orbital Test Your skills 0 What are the valence orbitals and electrons for 5 A5 C0 39 S Ne 352 3p4 Valence electrons 6 39 As Ar 452 3d10 4p4 Valence electrons 6 39 Co Ar 452 3d7 Valence electrons 9 Electron Configurations of AnionsCations For the anions the additional electrons fill orbitals following the same rules that applies to atoms 0 Cl Ne 352 3p5 Cl Ne 352 3p4 For the electron configurations of cations electrons of highest n value are removed first For cases of the same n level electrons are first removed from the subshell having highest L 0 As Ar 452 3d10 4p3 As 3 Ar 452 3d10 0 Mn Ar 452 3d5 Mn 2 Ar 3d5 Test Your Skill 0 Write the electron configurations of the following ions I N3 C03 Fe3 39 N3 152 252 2p6 Co3 Ar 452 3d3 Fe3 Ar 3d5 Sizes of the Atoms and Their Cations Atoms are always larger than their cations If an atom makes more than one cation the highercharged ion has smaller size Anion are always larger than their atoms Test your skills 0 Identify the larger species of each Pair I O or 02 Fe or Fe 2 39 0 Fe 2 Effective Nuclear Charge amp Size The sizes of atoms increase going down a group The sizes decrease going across a period Test Your Skill 0 Identify the larger species of each pair I K or Ca Cl or F 39 Ca Cl Ionization energy The ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion in its electronic ground state The increase in the effective nuclear charge across a period causes an increase in the ionization energy Isoelectronic species with the greatest charge in the nucleus will have the largest ionization energy 0 Another way to see it is the ones closest to the right has the higher ionization If in the same group the one closer to period 1 has higher ionization Also at this time don t worry about the cations and anions Example 0 Predict which species in each pair has the higher ionization energy I Ca or K As or N2 As or Ca2 39 Ca N2 As
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