ANT 304 - Week 9
ANT 304 - Week 9 ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
verified elite notetaker
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies October 21 2015 AMERICA SOUTHWEST Early farmers More understood Located in four corners region 0 Utah Colorado Arizona and New Mexico share a border 0 AKA Particularly known to have built cliff houses o In cliff walls almost cavelike you have these dwellings of pueblos 0 Very special end product from pit houses to puebloscliff dwellings Anasazi and four corners region became known to the world in late 18005 0 There were some rancher explorercollectors that lived in this part of Am Southwest and as part of collector aspect brought the wonders of the people of Mesa Verde 0 Found by the Wetherill family 0 Wetherill brought pottery and other stuff In this particular area we have examples of materials that are preserved from earlier stages 0 Found in earlier deposits of these cliff dwellings 0 Earlier deposits the Wetherill referred to as basketmakers 0 So before there is pottery or significant architecture there are a number of significant layers referred to as basketmakers 0 Different levels of basketmakers then portion where pottery is introduced and is what is first to as Anasazi o Textiles of various types 0 Wooden bone implements o Chipped stone 0 Papers 0 Fur blankets i subterranean ceremonialreligious structure 0 Found in pueblo setting 0 About AD 700 0 Among the Anasazi and their various constructions and buildings o In other words it s a below ground ceremonial structure Pit houses if looking from top are round 0 Have an entrance in form of cross section 0 Have certain features inside where ceremonial activities take place 0 An important structure Can fet a number of kivas within a certain town 0 In larger pueblos 0 Larger kiva that is more for the community Anasazi start to make finespun string in many colors 0 This is where we also get grey or white and black pottery Domesticates include dogs and turkeys Likely a good rainfall pattern so this is the point where the societies expand o Anasazi will spinoff and make small groups and lineages determined by their farming pattern Pottery is of good quality 0 Mesa Verde mug is super known 0 Rather than just jars and molds we have mugs o Probably has a lot to do with specific functions or societies In the closing years of pueblo period quotAD 1200 there is an extreme contraction of Anasazi o Rainfall patterns change and farming becomes way more difficult 0 Some parts that used to be inhabited are abandoned 0 Various ideas as to why areas are abandoned Ideas for abandonment 0 Long periods of drought 0 Pressure of enemy peoples there is some evidence for this where some places appear to be attacked 0 Significant periods of drought then suddenly get lots of rain so flooding happens it s absolutely disastrous to crops If you leave your settlement you re back to a hunting and gathering type of life 0 You don t take materials with you 0 Leave behind pottery baskets certain types of food 0 This is why Wetherill s found so much stuff AMERICA SOUTH WEST SUMMARY One of the few places in North America where we see societies become more complex then we see their decline Settlements 0 Some areas of dense population 0 Introduction of pit houses among other kinds of features 0 Surface masonry or adobe structures development of pueblos o Sedentary and permanent villages 0 Development of specialized religious structures kiva Subsistence 0 Close adaptation to environment still some hunting and collecting taking place 0 Agriculturehorticulture is minor at first but increases in importance over time o Domesticated animals turkeys and dogs 0 Several forms of irrigation Artifacts o Bows and arrows 0 Extensive use of marine shell particularly for jewelry rings bracelets necklaces 0 Trade for colored stones turquoise and colored feathers o Weaving and textiles o Variability in bone and wooden tools 0 Implied use of tobacco pipe and cane cigarettes Social Political Features 0 Weakly stratified society not strong class structure or anything like that 0 Evidence for some social control it s obvious in construction of irrigation systems or kivas 0 Little evidence for human sacrifice o Adaptability and receptivity to foreign ideas but only things that can be integrated into existing patterns 1 General close adaptation to local environmental features 2 Techniques of food preparation I Animals and plants exploited are similar to those exploited by archaic population I Accounts for most of the food being consumed 3 Tendency towards community with little social stratification 4 Weaklypoorly developed ideas of conquest CENTRAL CHINA Around 3000 BC cultural transformations that are similar all across China F o Named after place where they were first identified 0 Developed from previously existing societies Everywhere we look where we have Lungshanoid there seem to be two major stages of cultural development 0 transitional peaceful calm o earlier peaceful village life transforms into warlike and ranked society I The preparatory state for formation of civilization and state I If it stays on this particular track it will become a state consistently found in layers beneath Lungshanoid 0 North central cultures 0 From last exam 0 Clearly there s a transition between YangShao and Lungshanoid Lungshanoid EMPHASIZED 0 Pottery thin hard lustrous black different from Yang Shao which was red painted pottery 0 New kinds of tools for more intense agriculture and horticulture 0 Construction of village walls r technique for building village walls
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