U S History II (since 1865)
U S History II (since 1865) HIST 2112
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sheila Haley on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at University of West Georgia taught by Timothy Pitts in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/230209/hist-2112-university-of-west-georgia in History at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
STUDY GUIDE TEST 2 The following is a list of terms and concepts that you should be familiar with for the second test scheduled for Friday March 4 The bulk ofthe material comes from chapters 16 and 17 in Visions ofArnerica but the material on the New South and race relations can be found in chapter 14 pp 432435 and chapter 18 pp 554556 Also be sure to include the primary documents covered by Quiz 2 in your exam preparation I strongly encourage you to take advantage of the study tools available on myhistorylabcom especially the selftest features as these will help identify areas you need to improve Westward Expansion Polyglot communities 0 Manifest Destiny 0 Attempts to assimilate immigrant groups Obstacles to Expansion 0 Dark side to urbanization 0 Great American Desertquot myth Lack of services 0 Distance Substandard housin 0 Buffalo Reaction to the influx of immigrants 0 Indian tribes Nativism Transcontinental Railroad 2quotd Industrial Revolution 0 Pacific Railroad Act 1862 o Technological innovations Transcontinental Telegraph Revolved around three related developments lndian Wars 0 Nat l transportation and communication network White encroachment on tribal lands 0 Rise of electric power The Great Sioux War 0 Systematic application of scientific research to 0 General George Custer mdUStW 0 Little Bighorn AlexanderGraham Bell Nez Perces Thomas Alva Edison Wounded Knee George Westinghouse Dawes Severalty Act 1887 Robber Barons 0 Aims and assumptions ofthe legislation 0 Jay GOUId 0 Results 0 Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt Mining Frontier 0 John D Rockefeller Farmer s Frontier sodhouse frontier 0 Standaer Olt O Homestead Act Vertical integration 0 Hardships of farm life 39 TrUSt 0 Greater equality between men and women 39 Sherman Antl39TrUStACtOf1890 AfricanAmerican migration into the West 39 Ho39d39ng company Andrew Carnegie J Pierpont Morgan 0 Exodusters Benjamin Pap Singleton Cattleman s Frontier o S Steel Philanthropy of the Robber Barons o Cattle industry 0 Railroads and cowtowns 39 SOCial DanVinism 0 Cowboys 0 Herbert Spencer 0 Meat packers o survival ofthe fittest o Barbed wire laissezfaire 0 End of open range Carnegie s The Gospel of Wealth 1889 0 Range wars Labor conditions and organizations Turner s frontier thesis Obstacles to unions 0 Effects of frontier Molly Maguires 0 End of the frontier Anarchism 0 Problems with Turner s thesis Knights of Labor I C onsequences of Expansion 0 Haymarket Square Affair Chinese immigrants and the RR mmigration Act of 1891 39 Reaction to the COMES American Federation of Labor Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 puuman strike 1894 o lmmigrants recruited to settle the West 0 Eugene v Debs Horatio Alger o In re Debs 0 Tags to rICheSquot Opposition to child labor Agricultural boom created market for the RR Sociansm and American abor 0 Led t9 5 QFOWth In C39t39es Effects of industrial revolution Urbanization 0 Immigration also encouraged urbanization 0 Characteristics of Immigration Reconstruction 1865 1877 AntebellumPostbellum Roughly 633000 dead 0 Population of Atlanta 2008 520000 0 Population of Athens 2008 111500 Total pop of US was 15 million 2008 Statistics 0 0 US population 305000000 0 GA population 9 million 0 AL population 45 million Antietam September 17 1862 Bloodiest single day in American history Irginia Richmond v Burning of Atlanta MEXICO O 100 200 H H 1 43 wt MKWN INDIAN TERRITORY RECHNS FRUC I IQN 13654877 I 239 739 lt J MalEs mm Rl cumimclmn govcmmczms 1 4 L lm Dame 0f madmissicn In I311 Unicm 39 IRTE Dan M meatnhlixhnmnt ui comnul vt 2 Milimydimim m by Rumqmm Act 3457 Mauls by which slavery was amnle A Emunvimlim inlammim 1863 i 12m aution O Thinmmh Amerurnan was M 39J N V39 1111 VIN magiJ v rrwnn J Iquotl 7yg r39 new 13th Amendment January 1865 Section 1 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted shall exist within the United States or any place subject to theirjurisdiction Section 2 Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation Roughly 4 million slaves freed Reconstruction Groups Northern Radical Repulicans Northern Democrats Southern Planter Aristocracy Southern Unionists Freedmen Freedmen Roughly 4 million slaves freed by 13th Amendment Represented 34 BILLION in capital investment Competition between freedmen and poor whites forjobs amp status Definingexploring freedom 9 9 9 Mobility Main goals of freedmen Education amp Land Sherman s Special Field Order 15 40 acres and a mule Role of the church Attitudes of whites Paternalism Myths and misconceptions Black Codes Are the freedmen agents or victims Freedmen s Bureau Bureau of Refugees Freedmen and Abandoned Lands Established March 3 1865 To address all matters concerning refugees and freedmen within the states that were under reconstruction Social Services Helped black communities establish schools and churches Violence and Justice Monitored the civil authorities in cases that involved AfricanAmericans Initially the FB conducted its own court of law when it was illegal for a black to testify in court in the majority of Southern sates Labor and Contracts The labor system of the South had to be completely restructured after the war Many former slave owners attempted to trick former slaves into entering contracts under the same terms as under the slavery system The FB acted on behalf of blacks to negotiate fair contracts for labor and property Family Services The Freedmen39s Bureau acted as a clearinghouse of information to aide in finding lost relatives and mediated domestic disputes Replacing Slavery Need for a new system of labor How to meet the needsdesires of both white landowners and the former slaves Tenant farming Cash tenants Sharecroppers By 1900 75 of black farmers were tenant farmers along with 35 of white farmers HAM I ll39s 7 JMI h 001539 I W 53 Barrow Plantation Georgia Lincoln s Plan for Reconstruction Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction 10 Plan Dec 8 1863 Full pardon and restoration of rights to white S erners who pledged future loyalty to Union AND accept abolition of slavery Excludes highranking Confed politicians and military leaders When of loyal S erners in any state reached 10 of the of voters IN THE 1860 ELECTION could convene and form a new state gov t New state constitiution MUST abolish slavery Ignored issue of black suffrage Criticized by more radical Republicans as too lenient Congressional Republicans Alternative to Lincoln s Plan WadeDavis Bill 1864 MAJORITY of S ern white males must pledge support for US Constitution Ironclad Oath Lincoln pocketvetoed the bill Thaddeus Stevens primary leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress Hated Southern planters Wanted Reconstruction to be a social revolution Andrew Johnson Lincoln assassinated April 14 1865 Johnson S ern DEMOCRAT and Slaveowner Hated the Confederacy because he hated the plantation elite 7 Andrew Johnson Johnson initially believed to be an ally for congressional Republicans From 1865 to 1867 Johnson grew more and more conservative Johnson s plan for Reconstruction was VERY lenient like Lincoln s plan had been Johnson opposed any attempt to help freedmen Johnson s actions combined with Southern intransigence defiance caused many moderate Republicans to become more radical Johnson vs Congress Johnson vetoed recharter of the Freedmen s Bureau in 1866 Also vetoed a civil rights bill in 1866 Congressional Republicans gradually determine that Johnson is such an obstacle to their agenda that he must be removed from office Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Tenure of Office Act Edwin Stanton Secretary of War House of Representatives passed 11 Articles of Impeachment Feb 1868 Trial took place in the Senate with the Senators acting as jury If found guilty Johnson would be removed from office Johnson acquitted of charges Senate vote was 3519 one vote shy of the 23 majority needed to remove Johnson from office Impeachment fiasco carried consequences for both Johnson and the Republicans 14th Amendment reaffirmed state and federal citizenship for all persons born or naturalized in the US forbade any STATE from abridging the rights and privileges of citizens No PERSON could be deprived of life liberty or property without due process of the laws No person could be denied equal protection of the laws 15th Amendment guaranteed the right to vote to any MALE citizen on the grounds of race color or previous condition of servitude Freedmen quickly began exercising their votes Many blacks were elected to local and state offices especially in SC and Miss top positions in Southern state govts usually went to white Republicans either carpetbaggers or scalawags Carpetbaqqers Northerners who go South after the Civil War Scalawags Southern white Republicans MYTH Carpetbaggers were opportunistic thieves who came south and ransacked the state treasuries driving the states into debt aided by traitorous scalawags and their freedmen allies REALITY Southern state governments under these Radical Republicans were no moreless corrupt than any state governments In fact they made significant improvements in the South especially in education and social programs