Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Human Anatomy & Physiology I BIOL 2021
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INSTRUCTOR GUIDE Human Anatomy amp Physiology Laboratory Manual CAT VERSION Tenth Edition MAIN VERSION Ninth Edition FETAL PIG VERSION Tenth Edition RAT VERSION First Edition ELAINE N MARIEB RN PhD Holyoke Community College SUSAN J MITCHELL PhD Onondaga Community College ROBERT J SULLIVAN PhD Marist College LINDA S KOLLETT PhD Massasoit Community College PhysioExTM Exercises authored by Peter Z Zao North Idaho College Timothy Stabler Indiana University Northwest Lori Smith American River College Greta Peterson Middlesex Community College Andrew Lokuta University of WisconsiniMadison Beniamin Cummings Boston Columbus Indianapolis NewYork San Francisco UpperSaddle River Amsterdam CapeTown Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montr al Toronto Delhi Mexico City 550 Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning Dissemination or sale of any part of this work including on the World Wide Web will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials EditorinCtief Serina Beauparlant Project Editor Sabrina Larson PhysioExTM Project Edi tor Erik Fortier Associate Editor Nicole Graziano Editorial Assistant John Maas Managing Editor Deborah Cogan Production Manager Michele Mangelli Production Supervisor Leslie Austin Copyeditor Anna Reynolds Trabucco Compositor and Interior Designer Cecelia G Morales Proofreader Martha Ghent Cover Design Riezebos Holzbaur Design Group Senior Manufacturing B uyer Stacey Weinberger Marketing Manager Derek Perrigo Cover Credit Masterfile Copyright 2011 2008 2005 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1301 Sansome St San Francisco CA 94111 All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction storage in a retrieval system or transmission in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or likewise To obtain permissions to use material from this work please submit a written request to Pearson Education Inc Permissions Department 1900 E Lake Ave GlenView IL 60025 For information regarding permissions call 847 4862635 Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks Where those designations appear in this book and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of ISBN 10 0 321 64415 8 ISBN 13 978 0 321 64415 2 P E A R S O N wwwpearsonhigheredcom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 107BRR713 12 11 10 Contents Preface vi Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Safety Procedures viii Trends in Instrumentation X Part One Exercises Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 4 Exercise 5A Exercise 6A Exercise 7 Exercise 8 Exercise 9 Exercise 10 Exercise 11 Exercise 12 Exercise 13 Exercise 14 Exercise 15 Exercise 16A Exercise 17 Exercise 18A Exercise 19 Exercise 20 Exercise 21 Exercise 22 Exercise 23 Exercise 24 Exercise 25 Exercise 26 Exercise 27 The Language of Anatomy 1 Organ Systems Overview 7 The Microscope 11 The Cell Anatomy and Division 18 The Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability7Wet Lab 24 33 The Integumentary System 41 Classification of Tissues 47 Overview of the Skeleton Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages 51 The Axial Skeleton 57 The Appendicular Skeleton The Fetal Skeleton 73 Classification of Covering and Lining Membranes 65 Articulations and Body Movements 76 Microscopic Anatomy and Organization of Skeletal Muscle 82 Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System 87 Skeletal Muscle Physiology Frogs and Human Subjects 96 Histology of Nervous Tissue 105 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Wet Lab 111 Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves 116 Electroencephalography 124 Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves and the Autonomic Nervous System 128 Human Re ex Physiology 135 142 Special Senses Vision General Sensation 146 Special Senses Hearing and Equilibrium 155 162 Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands Special Senses Olfaction and Taste 166 Exercise 28A Exercise 29A Exercise 30 Exercise 31 Exercise 32 Exercise 33A Exercise 34A Exercise 35A Exercise 36 Exercise 37A Exercise 38 Exercise 39A Exercise 40 Exercise 41A Exercise 42 Exercise 43 Exercise 44 Exercise 45 Exercise 46 Role of Thyroid Hormone Pituitary Hormone Insulin and Epinephrine Wet Lab 172 Blood 179 Anatomy of the Heart 188 Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography 194 198 Human Cardiovascular Physiology Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations 205 Frog Cardiovascular Physiology Wet Lab 214 Anatomy of Blood Vessels The Lymphatic System and Immune Response 222 Anatomy of the Respiratory System 228 Respiratory System Physiology 234 Anatomy of the Digestive System 243 Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Wet Lab 251 Anatomy of the Urinary System 258 264 Anatomy of the Reproductive System 269 Urinalysis Physiology of Reproduction Gametogenesis and the Female Cycles 276 Survey of Embryonic Development 282 Principles of Heredity 288 Surface Anatomy Roundup 295 Part Two Cat Dissection Exercises Dissection Exercise 1 Dissection Exercise 2 Dissection of Cat Spinal Nerves Dissection Exercise 3 Dissection Exercise 4 Dissection Exercise 5 The Main Lymphatic Ducts of the Cat Dissection Exercise 6 Dissection Exercise 7 Dissection Exercise 8 Dissection of the Urinary System of the Cat Dissection Exercise 9 Dissection and Identification of Cat Muscles 298 301 Identification of Selected Endocrine Organs of the Cat Dissection of the Blood Vessels of the Cat 304 306 Dissection of the Respiratory System of the Cat 302 307 308 310 Dissection of the Reproductive System of the Cat Dissection of the Digestive System of the Cat 312 Part Three Fetal Pig Dissection Exercises Dissection Exercise 1 Dissection and Identification of Fetal Pig Muscles 314 Dissection Exercise 2 Dissection of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves of the Fetal Pig 317 Dissection Exercise 3 Identification of Selected Endocrine Organs of the Fetal Pig 318 Dissection Exercise 4 Dissection of the Blood Vessels and Main Lymphatic Ducts of the Fetal Pig 320 Dissection Exercise 5 Dissection of the Respiratory System of the Fetal Pig 322 Dissection Exercise 6 Dissection of the Digestive System of the Fetal Pig 324 Dissection Exercise 7 Dissection of the Urinary System of the Fetal Pig 326 Dissection Exercise 8 Dissection of the Reproductive System of the Fetal Pig 328 Part Four Rat Dissection Exercises Dissection Exercise 1 Dissection and Identification of Rat Muscles 330 Dissection Exercise 2 Identification of Selected Endocrine Organs of the Rat 333 Dissection Exercise 3 Dissection of the Blood Vessels of the Rat 335 Dissection Exercise 4 Dissection of the Respiratory System of the Rat 337 Dissection Exercise 5 Dissection of the Digestive System of the Rat 339 Dissection Exercise 6 Dissection of the Urinary System of the Rat 341 Dissection Exercise 7 Dissection of the Reproductive System of the Rat 343 Part Five PhysioExTM Exercises Exercise SB Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Computer Simulation 345 Exercise 16B Skeletal Muscle Physiology 351 Exercise 18B Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Computer Simulation 357 Exercise 283 Endocrine System Physiology Computer Simulation 362 Exercise 29B Blood Analysis Computer Simulation 369 Exercise 33B Cardiovascular Dynamics Computer Simulation 375 Exercise 34B Frog Cardiovascular Physiology Computer Simulation 381 Exercise 37B Respiratory System Mechanics Computer Simulation 387 Exercise 393 Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Computer Simulation 393 Exercise 4lB Renal System Physiology Computer Simulation 399 Exercise 47 Acid Base Balance Computer Simulation 405 PhysioExTM Frequently Asked Questions 410 Appendices Appendix A List of Supply Houses 412 Appendix B Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors 413 PREFACE Organization of this Instructor Guide The Instructor Guide for Human Anatomy amp Physiology Laboratory Manuals Rat Version First Edition Main Version Ninth Edition and Cat and Fetal Pig Versions Tenth Editions by Elaine N Marieb and Susan J Mitchell continues to feature a wealth of information for the anatomy and physiology laboratory instructor Each exercise in this manual includes detailed directions for setting up the laboratory comments on the exercise including common problems encountered some additional or alternative activities and answers to the new prelab quizzes and activity questions that appear in the text of the lab manual Answers to questions regarding student observations and data have not been included Answers to the lab manual Review Sheets have been integrated to follow each exercise In some cases several acceptable answers have been provided Answers to the dissection review questions are located in this guide with the dissection exercises Directions for use of the kymograph have been removed from the lab manual but appear in Exercise 16 in the Instructor Guide Several complete exercises incorporating PowerLab iWorx and Intelitool computer data acquisition and compilation systems as well as instructions for the BIOPAC software and Zchannel unit can be downloaded from the Instructor Resource section of the new myAampP website for the Human Anatomy amp Physiology Laboratory Manuals and may be duplicated for student use The time allotment at the beginning of each exercise indicated by the hourglass icon is an estimate of the amount of inlab time it will take to complete the exercise unless noted otherwise If you are using multimedia add the running time to the time allotted for a given exercise Suggested multimedia resources indicated by the computer icon are listed for each exercise Format options include VHS CDROM DVD Website and streaming webcast Information includes title ormat running time and distributor The key to distributor abbreviations is in the Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors Appendix B Street and Web addresses of the distributors are also listed in Appendix B Each exercise includes directions for preparing needed solutions indicated by the test tube icon Trends in Instrumentation includes information about laboratory techniques and equipment including informa tion on PowerLab iWorx and Intelitool There are some suggestions about additional investigations using techniques and equipment not described in the laboratory manual The Laboratory Materials list in each exercise is intended as a convenience when ordering Amounts listed assume a laboratory class of 24 students working in groups of four Information about several supply houses appears in Appendix A Note The information provided is not an exhaustive list of suppliers Laboratory Safety Always establish safety procedures for the laboratory Students should be given a list of safety procedures at the beginning of each semester and should be asked to locate exits and safety equipment Suggested proce dures may be found on pp viiiiix along with a student acknowledgment form These pages may be copied and given to the students Signed student acknowledgment forms should be collected by the instructor once the safety procedures have been read and explained and the safety equipment has been located Special precautions must be taken for laboratories using body fluids Students should use only their own fluids or those provided by the instructor In many cases suitable alternatives have been suggested All reusable glassware and plasticware should be soaked in 10 bleach solution for 2 hours and then washed with laboratory detergent and autoclaved if possible Disposable items should be placed in an autoclave bag for 15 minutes at 121 C and 15 pounds of pressure to ensure sterility After autoclaving items may be discarded in any disposal facility Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc Disposal of dissection materials and preservatives should be arranged according to state regulations Be advised that regulations vary from state to state Contact your state Department of Health or Environmental Protection Agency or their counterparts for advice Keep in mind that many dissection specimens can be ordered in formaldehydefree preservatives however even formaldehydefree specimens may not be accepted by local landfill organizations Acknowledgments Thanks to the team at Benjamin Cummings Serina Beauparlant EditorinChief Nicole Graziano Associate Editor Stacey Weinberger Senior Manufacturing Buyer and Derek Perrigo Marketing Manager Many thanks also to Michele Mangelli Production Manager and Leslie Austin Production Supervisor Susan J Mitchell Copyright 2011 Pearson Education lnc Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Safety Procedures N U h 05quot 1 H 0000 H N HHHH GUIbu viii Upon entering the laboratory locate exits fire extinguisher fire blanket chemical shower eye wash station first aid kit broken glass containers and cleanup materials for spills Do not eat drink smoke handle contact lenses store food or apply cosmetics or lip balm in the laborato ry Restrain long hair loose clothing and dangling jewelry Students who are pregnant taking immunosuppressive drugs or who have any other medical condition e g diabetes immunological defect that might necessitate special precautions in the laboratory must inform the instructor immediately Wearing contact lenses in the laboratory is inadvisable because they do not provide eye protection and may trap material on the surface of the eye If possible wear regular eyeglasses instead Use safety glasses in all experiments involving liquids aerosols vapors and gases Decontaminate work surfaces at the beginning and end of every laboratory period using a commercially prepared disinfectant or 10 bleach solution After labs involving dissection of preserved material use hot soapy water or disinfectant Keep liquids away from the edge of the lab bench to help avoid spills Clean up spills of viable materials using disinfectant or 10 bleach solution Properly label glassware and slides Use mechanical pipeting devices mouth pipeting is prohibited Wear disposable gloves when handling blood and other body fluids mucous membranes or nonintact skin andor when touching items or surfaces soiled with blood or other body fluids Change gloves between procedures Wash hands immediately after removing gloves Note Cover open cuts or scrapes with a ster ile bandage before donning gloves Place glassware and plasticware contaminated by blood and other body fluids in a disposable autoclave bag for decontamination by autoclaving or place them directly into a 10 bleach solution before reuse or disposal Place disposable materials such as gloves mouthpieces swabs and toothpicks that come into contact with body fluids into a disposable autoclave bag and decontaminate before disposal To help prevent contamination by needle stick injuries use only disposable needles and lancets Do not bend needles and lancets Needles and lancets should be placed promptly in a labeled punctureresistant leakproof container and decontaminated preferably by autoclaving Do not leave heat sources unattended Report all spills or accidents no matter how minor to the instructor Never work alone in the laboratory Remove protective clothing and wash hands before leaving the laboratory Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc Laboratory Safety Acknowledgment Form I hereby certify that I have read the safety recommendations provided for the laboratory and have located all of the safety equipment listed in Safety Procedure Number 1 of these procedures Student s Nam e Course Date Instructor s Name Adapted from Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories BMBL 5th Edition 2007 US Government Printing Office Washington DC wwwicdcigovodOHSbiosftybmblSbmblStocihtm Centers for Disease Controli 1996 Universal Precautions for Prevention of Transmission of HIV and Other Bloodborne Infections Washington DC httpwwwicdcigovncidoddhqpbpiuniversaliprecautionsihtml Johnson Ted and Christine Case 2010 Laboratory Experiments in Microbiology Ninth Edition San Francisco CA Pearson Benjamin Cummings School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide 2006 US Consumer Product Safety Commission Bethesda MD httpwwwicpscigovCPSCPUBPUBSNIOSH2007107ipdf Copyright 2011 Pearson Education lnc Trends in Instrumentation Robert Anthony and Alan Wade Triton College Peter Zao North Idaho College Susan J Mitchell Onondaga Community College This section is designed for instructors interested in incorporating additional laboratory technologies and instrumentation into their anatomy and physiology courses The following techniques will intro duce students to some standard approaches and instrumentation currently used in clinical and research facilities Although these techniques are used in various biology and chemistry laboratory courses many students in basic anatomy and physiology are not routinely introduced to these skills Rather than detailing specific laboratory procedures this discussion will provide insight into some of the options for bringing technology into the introductory anatomy and physiology laboratory One of the standard methods available to medical 39 and 39 is 39 39 data acquisition Currently available computer packages can measure and analyze various aspects of cardiac reflex muscle and respiratory physiology Other standard methods include chromatography 39 d 39 39 39 quot 39 o available computer data acquisition systems and clinical technologies for use in an anatomy and physiology laboratory are listed on the following pages Included in each application are relevant exercises in the laboratory manual and a brief description of each possible quot 39 39 39 offering 39 products is included in Appendix A Computerized Data Acquisition Computerized equipment is commonly used to monitor patients in today s allied health areas We have found that students appreciate the brief exposure to computers in our labs and begin to realize that a computer is not an intimidating machine but a tool that allows them to perform specific tasks Incorporating computerbased exercises into the lab also generates increased interest because most students realize that they will be using computers in their chosen professions Analogtodigital converters can be used to create customized physiological data collection systems Easy to use computer data acquisition systems include BIOPAC PowerLab Intelitool iWorx and Vernier sys tems The packages are designed for use in collegelevel courses and require minimal computer experience Directions for BIOPAC are included in the lab manual Exercises using PowerLab iWorx and Intelitool can be downloaded from the Instructor Resource section of the myAampP companion website for the lab manuals at wwwmyaandpcom The Vernier system can be easily adapted to sections of Exercises 31 and 31A General Tips for Computer Data Acquisition Systems Use in the Laboratory The following ideas are general guidelines designed as an introduction to the operation of computer acquisi tion systems Each system contains the software equipment and basic instructions needed to conduct the experiments on a computer Starting the Laboratory 0 Prepare the laboratory for a computerassisted data acquisition exercise by connecting the transducers and cables to the computer 0 Run through each exercise yourself so that you have a good idea of how much time is required to com plete the activities in the given lab time period Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc 0 You may wish to start the program so that the main menu is visible as the students sit down to work If computer novices are left to start and prepare the system by themselves their initial frustration may waste valuable lab time and detract from the experience 0 Once the program menu is up students should be able to follow the exercise procedures without difficulty 0 It may be helpful to have an introductory lab designed to introduce the students to the general operation of the system Exercises Based on the PowerLab System Laboratory Exercises with PowerLab instructions are available for download from the Instructor Resource section of myAampP for the following lab exercises Exercise 16A Skeletal Muscle Physiology Frogs and Human Subjects Exercise 22 Human Re ex Physiology Exercise 31 Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography Exercise 33A Human Cardiovascular Physiology Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations Exercise 34A Frog Cardiovascular Physiology Wet Lab Exercise 37A Respiratory System Physiology Comments and tips specific to each exercise are included in the instructions Exercises Based on iWorx Laboratory Exercises with iWorx instructions are available for download from the Instructor Resource sec tion of myAampP for the following lab exercises Exercise 16A Electromyography in a Human Subject Using iWorx Exercise 20 Electroencephalography Using iWorx Exercise 22 Measuring Reaction Time Using iWorx Exercise 31 Electrocardiography Using iWorx Exercise 33A Measuring Pulse Using iWorx Exercise 34A Recording Baseline Frog Heart Activity Exercise 37A Measuring Respiratory Variations Exercises Based on Intelitoo Systems Laboratory exercises with Intelitool instructions are available for download from the Instructor Resource sec tion of myAampP for the following lab exercises Exercise 16A Muscle Physiology Exercise 22 Human Reflex Physiology Exercise 31 Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography Exercise 37A Respiratory System Physiology Comments and tips specific to each exercise are included on a separate Tips for Instructors page preceding each exercise Exercises in Cell Physiology and Clinical Chemistry Modern cell physiology lab exercises frequently involve biochemical analysis of cellular components and products A number of techniques can be used to detect and quantify the constituents of cells and body fluids xi Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc Some of the more commonly used clinical and research techniques include chromatography spectrophotome try and electrophoresis Chromatography Exercise 4 The Cell Anatomy and Division Introduce molecular separation techniques when discussing the cell or macromolecules Exercise 29 Blood Separate protein and lipid components during blood analysis Application Chromatographic techniques have a number of applications in cell physiology and chemistry Chromatography is used for separation and identification of components in mixtures containing amino acids nucleic acids sug ars vitamins steroids antibiotics and other drugs The major forms of chromatography for the college physiology laboratory include thinlayer paper col umn gasliquid and highperformance liquid chromatography Descriptions of these procedures and their clin ical applications can be found in a number of clinical method manuals Gas and highperformance liquid chromatography offer the greatest sensitivity and quantitative ability but the high initial investment usually makes these systems prohibitive unless they are already in place Thinlayer and paper chromatography are economical and they can be performed with a minimum of equipment Both methods can be used as qualitative or semiquantitative screening techniques to detect the presence of both endogenous and exogenous compounds example of a clinically significant screening test is the determination by thinlayer chromatography of abnormal levels of certain amino acids that are associated with genetic diseases affecting metabolism The dis orders phenylketonuria alkaptonuria and homocystinuria result in abnormal levels of phenylalanine homogen tisic acid and methionine respectively in the urine and blood The sample and standards are applied to a thin layer plate coated with cellulose acetate or a silica gel or to a Whatman 4 chromatography paper and run in a butanolacetic acidwater solvent For visualization and identification of amino acids an indicator such as nin hydrin may be used The color intensity for the appropriate amino acids can be compared to normal values Spectrophotometry Exercise 29A Blood Analyze protein or lipid composition or enzyme hydrolysis Exercise 41A Urinalysis Analyze various substances present in urine Exercise 39A Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Quantitative spectrophotometric analysis of enzyme hydrolysis Application Spectrophotometry is a common procedure used in clinical and research settings for determining concentra tions of substances in solution based on the amount of radiant energy transmitted through or absorbed b a substance in solution Spectrophotometric measurements include total protein total lipid cholesterol lipopro tein and hemoglobin S ectrophotometry can also be used as a quantitative measure of enzymatic hydrolysis using commercial ly available colorigenic substrates Most 39 39 1n 1 1 y utilize in visible or ultraviolet ranges For a more detailed description of the theory of spectrophotometry and use of the equip ment refer to a biochemistry or clinical methods manual ll Due to the hazards associated with the laboratory use of human body uids it may be advisable to avoid using stu dentdrawn blood samples for analysis There are a wide variety of commercially available blood components both normal and abnormal as well as blood component standards 2 At It Pesce and Li A Kaplan 1987 Methods in Clinical Chemistry CV Mosby Cor Mr Li Bishop Jr Lt Duben Von Laufen E R Fodyr 2000 Clinical Chemistry Principles Procedures Correlations Fourth Edition Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins 3 Jr C Touchstone and Mr E Dobbins 1992 The Practice of T hiniLayer Chromatography Third Edition John Wiley and Sons Copyright 2011 Pearson Education lnc Diagnostic kits for specific diseases include 1 Bilirubin liver disease 2 Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol atherosclerosis 3 Creatine kinase striated muscle damage 4 Hemoglobin anemia 5 Creatinjne kidney disease Electrophoresis Exercise 29A Blood Analyze protein and lipid components of blood Exercise 45 Principles of Heredity DNA fingerprinting systems comparison of adult and sicklecell hemo globin Application Electrophoretic techniques which demonstrate the migration and separation of charged solutes in an electrical field have many important applications in cell and molecular biology The most commonly used techniques involve zone electrophoresis in which migration occurs Within a semisolid support medium In a majority of these procedures agarose polyacrylamide or sodium dodecyl sulfate gels are used as the support medium Sample migration can be horizontal or vertical depending on the type of apparatus Directions for agarose gel separation of hemoglobin can be found in Exercise 45 of the laboratory manual An increasing number of supply companies are recognizing the importance of studies in molecular biology and their impact on the study of cell physiology and human disease The companies are becoming involved with biotechnology education by offering lab systems that are designed to introduce the methods of molecular biology and biotechnology to students at the precollege and college levels These systems are often in kit orm and facilitate handson experience with a variety of important procedures Some of the experimental sys tems available are 1 Molecular weight determination proteins 2 Separation and identification of serum proteins 3 Cardiac risk assessmentianalysis of lipoproteins 4 DNA fingerprintingirestriction fragmentation patterns Sources of Equipment and Reagents Supplies for the biochemical techniques described in the above section can be obtained from the supply houses listed in Appendix A The list is by no means complete but includes companies that are familiar to most educa tors The lntelitool products are best obtained directly from the company rather than through another vendor as delivery times are much quicker Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc xiii The Language of Anatomy If time is a problem most of this exercise can be done as an out of class assignment Time Allotment 12 hour in lab Multimedia Resources See Appendix B for Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors AD AM Interactive Anatomy 40 AIA CDROM DVD Laboratory Materials Ordering information is based on a lab size of 24 students working in groups of 4 A list of supply house addresses appears in Appendix A 172 human torso models 34 preserved kidneys sheep Gelatinspaghetti molds 2 human skeletons one male Scalpels and one female Advance Preparation H Set out human torso models and have articulated skeletons available E0 Obtain three preserved kidneys sheep kidneys work well Cut one in transverse section one in longitudi nal section usually a sagittal section and leave one uncut Label the kidneys and put them in a demon stration area You may wish to add a fourth kidney to demonstrate a frontal section The day before the lab prepare gelatin or JellO using slightly less water than is called for and cook the spaghetti until it is al dente Pour the gelatin into several small molds and drop several spaghetti strands into each mold Refrigerate until lab time E gt Set out gelatinspaghetti molds and scalpel Comments and Pitfalls 1 Students will probably have the most trouble understanding proximal and distal often confusing these terms with superior and inferior They also find the terms anteriorventral and posteriordorsal confusing because these terms refer to the same directions in humans but different directions in fourlegged animals Other than that there should be few problems Answers to PreLab Quiz p 1 1 false 4 b sagittal 2 axial 5 cranial vertebral 3 b toward or at the body surface 6 Heart Copyngm 2011 Pearson Educauon mo Answers to Activity Questions Activity 2 Practicing Using Correct Anatomical Terminology p 4 The wrist is proximal to the hand The trachea windpipe is anterior or ventral to the spine The brain is superior or cephalad to the spinal cord The kidneys are inferior or caudal to the liver The nose is medial to the cheekbones The thumb is lateral to the ring finger The thorax is superior or cephalad to the abdomen The skin is super cial to the skeleton Activity 4 Identifying Organs in the Abdominopelvic Cavity p 9 Name two organs found in the left upper quadrant stomach spleen large intestine Name two organs found in the right lower quadrant small intestine large intestine appendix What organ is diVided into identical halves by the median plane line urinary bladder 2 Exercise 1 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc The Language of Anatomy Surface Anatomy 1 Match each of the following descriptions with a key equivalent and record the key letter or term in front of the description Key a buccal c cephalic e patellar b calcaneal d digital f scapular L 1 cheek WWW 4 anterior aspect of knee d dt39 ital 2 r b calcaneal 5 has of foot 3 shoulder blade region 6 pertaining to the head 2 Indicate the following body areas on L 39 39 by p 39 letter at me euu of each line ampy abdominal antecubital br ial su a thoracic umbilical T QFE F39T39PFWWFPPETP quoti E u E 3 Classify each of the terms in the key of q uestion 2 above into one of the large body regions indicated below Insert the appropriate key letters on the answer blanks 1quot 339 e39f39 8 139 1 1 appendicular 139 139 h39 Wquot k39 m39 DJ 2 axial Body Orientation Direction Planes and Sections 439 l Standing erect Spuinted mm ll Copyngm 2011 Peavsun Education inc 5 De ne Swan A Cut alurlg an imaginary plane thruugh the budy wall Dr urgan 6 Several incomplete statements are listed below Correctly complete each statement by choosing the appropriate anatomical term from the key Record the key letters andor terms on the correspondingly numbered blanks below Key a anterior d inferior g posterior j superior b dis 1 e lateral h proximal k transverse c frontal f medial i sagittal In the anatomical position the face and palms are on the body surface the buttocks and shoulder blades are on the A2 body su ce and the top of the head is the most i part of the body The ears are i and i the shoulders and Lto the nose The heart is L to the vertebral column spine and L to the lungs The elbow is Lto the fingers but1to the shoulder quot L 39 39 is L L 39 39 quot1 L l39 39 in human the dorsal surface can also be called the A surface however in quadruped animals the dorsal surface is the A surface If an incision cuts the heart into right and left parts the section is a A section but if the heart is cut so that superior and inferior portions result the section is a 1 section 39 39 39 rm kidneys are observable in each section 39 39 l 39 L l7 and 1 sec tinn A sertinn L 39 39 l 39 A 39 quotI I ALSBCIJOH 1 a anterlur 8 f medial 14 j superiur 2 gpusteriur 9 I39lprmcimal 15 i sagittal 3 j superiur 10 b distal 16 k transverse 4 f medial 11 d inferiur 17 Cfrurltal 5 j superiur 1 2 a anteriur 18 k transverse 5 e lateral 13 g pusteriur 19 i sagittal a anlerl ur 7 7 Correctly identify each of the body planes by inserting the appropriate term for each on the answer line below the drawing a b c median midrsagl39ttal plane frurltal plane transverse plane Review Sheet 1 Copyllgm 2011 Pealsun Education inc 8 Draw a kidney as it appears when sectioned in each of the three di ferent planes fruyltal Sectiun Sagittal Sectiqu transverse sectiuyl 9 Correctly identify each of the nine areas e abdominal surface by inserting the appropriate term for each of the letters indir cated in the drawing a epigastric regiml b right hypuchumiriac regiun C left hypuchumiriac regiun d umbilical regiun e righllumbarregiun 7 a b f leftlumbarregiun U l d h right ilia reigun hypugastric pubic regiml g K e q left iliac regiun Body Cavities 10 mu LL 4 surgery or procedures Insert letter of key choice in vuuul uuu m it 39 samernumbered blank More than one choice may apply Key a abdominopelvic c dorsal e thoracic b cranial d spinal f ventral 81 1 surgery to remove a cancerous lung lobe L 4 appendectomy L 2 removal of the uterus or womb L 5 stomach ulcer operation 4139 c L 3 removal of a brain tumor 6 delivery of preoperative saddle anesthesia Revlew Sheet 1 5 Copyllgm 2011 Pealsun Education inc 11 Name the muscle that subdivides the ventral body cavity Diaphragm 12 Which organ system would not be represented in any of the body cavities Skeletal WWW Wagw wmmy 13 What are thebony landmarks ofthe 39 L 39 pm if f Dorsally the vertebral column laterally and anteriorly the pelvzs 14 Which body cavity affords the least protection to its internal structures Abdommal 15 What is the function of the serous membranes of the body The WW WMZ W W WWWe a lubrlCdll g Wd SNOW uid that redncesfriction as organs slide across one another or against the cavity walls during theirfnnctioning 16 Using the key choices identify the small body cavities described below K ey a middle ear cavity c oral cavity e synovial cavity nasal cavity d orbital cavity d orbital MW 1 holds the eyes in an anteriorfacing position 5 0m MW a Middle 8 quot MW 2 houses three tiny bones involved in hearing 2 WW MW 3 contained within the nose 17 On the incomplete flowchart provided below 0 Fill in the cavity names as appropriate to boxes 378 e synovial cavity 4 contains the tongue 5 lines a joint cavity 0 Then using either the name of the cavity or the box numbers identify the descriptions in the list that follows Body cavities 1 Dorsal body cavity 3 cranial cavity superior 4 ve rtebral spinal cavity inferior thoracic 2 Ventral body caVIty superior 6 abdominopelvzc cavity I I 7 abdominal cavity inferior I superior pelvzc inferior a contained within the skull and vertebral column 5 contains the heart b houses female reproductive organs 6 or 7 f contains the small intestine A c the most protective body cavity 5 g bounded by the ribs 2 d its name means belly 6 or 7 h its walls are muscular 6 Review Sheet 1 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc Organ Systems Overview Time Allotment 112 hours rat dissection 1 hour if performing reproductive system dissection 12 hour each for male and female dissectible human torso model 12 hour Multimedia Resources See Appendix B for Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors Homeostasis FHS 20 minutes VHS DVD 3year streaming webcast Homeostasis The Body in Balance HRM 26 minutes VHS DVD Organ Systems Working Together WNS 14 minutes VHS Practice Anatomy LabTM 20 PAL BC CDROM Website Solutions Bleach Solution 10 Measure out 100 milliliters of household bleach Add water to a final volume of 1 liter Laboratory Materials Ordering information is based on a lab size of 24 students working in groups of 4 A list of supply house addresses appears in Appendix A Dissectible human torso model 6712 blunt probes 6e12 dissecting trays or cadaver Disposable gloves soap and sponges Lab disinfectant or 10 bleach 6712 forceps 6712 freshly killed or preserved rats solution 6712 scissors Twine or large dissecting pins Advance Preparation 1 Make arrangements for appropriate storage and disposal of dissection materials Check with the Depart ment of Health or the Department of Environmental Protection or their counterparts for state regulations 2 Designate a disposal container for organic debris set up a dishwashing area with hot soapy water and sponges and provide lab disinfectant such as WavicideOl Carolina or bleach solution for washing down the lab benches Set out safety glasses and disposable gloves for dissection of freshly killed animals to protect students from parasites and for dissection of preserved animals E gt Decide on the number of students in each dissecting group a maximum of four is suggested two is prob ably best Each dissecting group should have a dissecting pan dissecting pins scissors blunt probe for ceps twine and a preserved or freshly killed rat 5quot Preserved rats are more convenient to use unless small mammal facilities are available If live rats are used they may be killed a halfhour or so prior to the lab by administering an overdose of ether or chloro form To do this remove each rat from its cage and hold it firmly by the skin at the back of its neck Put the rat in a container with cotton soaked in ether or chloroform Seal the jar tightly and wait until the rat ceases to breathe Fquot Set out dissectible human torso models and a dissected human cadaver if available Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc Comments and Pitfalls l N E 4 Students may be overly enthusiastic when using the scalpel and cut away organs they are supposed to locate and identify Therefore use scissors to open the body Have blunt probes available as the major dis secting tool Be sure the lab is well ventilated and encourage students to take fresh air breaks if the preservative fumes are strong If the dissection animal will be used only once it can be rinsed to remove most of the excess preservative Organic debris may end up in the sinks clogging the drains Remind the students to dispose of all dissec tion materials in the designated container Inferior vena cava and aorta may be difficult to distinguish in uninjected specimens Answers to PreLab Quiz p 15 l 2 3 The cell 4 respiratory c organ 5 urinary nervous 6 diaphragm Answers to Activity Questions Activity 5 Examining the Human Torso Model p 24 2 E b From top to bottom the organs pointed out on the torso model are brain trachea thyroid gland lung heart diaphragm liver stomach spleen large intestine greater omentum small intestine Dorsal body cavity brain spinal cord Thoracic cavity aortic arch bronchi descending aorta thoracic region esophagus heart inferior vena cava lungs and trachea Abdominopelvic cavity adrenal gland descending aorta abdominal region greater omentum inferior vena cava kidneys large intestine liver mesentery pancreas rectum small intestine spleen stomach ureters urinary bladder Note The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity Right Upper Quadrant right adrenal gland right kidney large and small intestine liver mesentery pan creas stomach right ureter Left Upper Quadrant left adrenal gland descending aorta greater omentum left kidney large and small intestine mesentery pancreas spleen stomach le ureter Right Lower Quadrant large and small intestine mesentery rectum right ureter urinary bladder Left Lower Quadrant descending aorta greater omentum large and small intestine left ureter urinary bladder Digestive esophagus liver stomach pancreas small intestine large instestine including rectum Urinary kidneys ureters urinary bladder Cardiovascular aortic arch heart descending aorta inferior vena cava Endocrine pancreas adrenal gland thyroid gland Reproductive none Respiratory lungs bronchi trachea LymphaticImmunity spleen Nervous brain spinal cord Exercise 2 Copyrigm 20H Pearson Education inc H Organ Systems Overview Use the key below to indicate the body systems that perform the following functions for the body Then circle the organ sys tems in the key that are present in all subdivisions of the ventral body cavity Key a d integumentary g j skeletal b e lymphaticimmunity h reproductive k urinary c f muscular i respiratory k Mary 1 rids the body of nitrogencontaining wastes 5 6M er 2 is affected by removal of the thyroid gland J Skeletal 3 provides support and levers on which the muscular system acts a CdVdZOVdSCMZdV 4 includes the hem 5 6M er h repro imlwe 5 causes the onset of the menstrual cycle d lmegumemmy 6 protects underlying organs from drying out and from mechanical damage 6 lymphamlmmumly 7 protects the body destroys bacteria and tumor cells 2 3188quot 8 breaks down ingested food into its building blocks 9 removes carbon dioxide from the blood a cardiovascular 10 delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues f muscular 11 moves the limbs facilitates facial expression 19 WWW 12 conserves body water or eliminates excesses 0 emiOCWbe and h repro imnve 13 facilitate conception and childbearing C endomm 14 controls the body by means of chemical molecules called hormones d mmgumemmy 15 is damaged when you cut your finger or get a severe sunburn Using the above key choose the organ system to which each of the following sets of organs or body structures belongs e lymphaticimmunity 139 thymus Spleen d lmegummmry 5 epidermis dermis lymphatic vessels and cutaneous sense organs j skeletal 2 bones ca ages h VePVOdm lVe 6 testis ductus deferens tendons urethra 5 emom w 3 pancreas pituitary b digemve 7 esophagus large adrenals intestine rectum 1 VeSlelWy 4 trachea bronchi f muscular 8 muscles of the thigh alveoh postural muscles Copyrigm 20 Pearson Education no 3 Using the key below place the following organs in their proper body cavity Key a abdominopelvic b cranial c spinal d thoracic aabdominopelVic 139 stomach aabdominopelVic 439 liver d thoracic 739 hem ML 2 esophagus M 5 spinal cord ML 8 trachea a abdominopelvtc 339 large intestine a abdominopelVic 639 urinary bladder a abdominopelvzc 939 rectum 4 Using the organs listed in question 3 above record by number which would be found in the abdominal regions listed below 37 6 9 l hypogastric region 4 epigastric region 3 2 right lumbar region 4 5 left iliac region 3 3 umbilical region 1 3 4 6 left 1 iac region 5 The levels of organization of a living body 39 56 SM 7ng 7ng system and organism 6 Define organ A body part or structure that is made up oftwo or more tissue types and performs a specific body function eg the stomach the kidney 7 Using the terms provided correctly identify all of the body organs provided with leader lines in the drawings shown below Then name the organ systems by entering the name of each on the answer blank below each drawing Key blood vessels heart nerves spinal cord urethra brain kidney sensory receptor ureter urinary bladder 7 brain sensory receptor spinal cord heart nerves blood vessels a nervous system b cardiovascular system urinary system C 8 Why is it helpful to study the external and internal structures of the rat MWW oflhe term W d mama WWW are similar to those in the human Studying the rat can help you to understand your own structure 10 Review Sheet 2 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc The Microscope If students have already had an introductory biology course where the microscope has been introduced and used there might be a temptation to skip this exercise I have found that most students need the review so I recommend spending this time early in the course to make sure they are all comfortable with the microscope as it is used extensively throughout the laboratory manual Time Allotment 2 hours Solutions Bleach Solution 10 Measure out 100 milliliters of household bleach Add water to a final volume of 1 liter Methylene Blue Solution Loe ler s Weigh out 05 gram methylene blue 1 milliliter 1 potassium hydroxide solution and 30 milliliters ethanol absolute Add to 100 milliliters distilled water Warm the water to about 50 degrees C stir in methylene blue and add other ingredients filter Physiologic Saline Mammalian 09 Weigh out 9 grams of NaCl Add distilleddeionized water to a final volume of 1 liter Make fresh just prior to experiment Laboratory Materials Ordering information is based on a lab size of 24 students working in groups of 4 A list of supply house addresses appears in Appendix A 24 compound microscopes lens 24 slides of crossed colored threads 8712 dropper bottles of physiologic cleaning solution lens paper threads should cross at a single saline immersion oil junction 8712 dropper bottles of methylene 24 millimeter rulers Filter paper or paper towels blue stain dilute or iodine 24 slides of the letter e 1 box of microscope slides 24 slides of cheek epithelial cells 24 slides with millimeter grids 1 box of coverslips 10 bleach solution 1 box of flattipped toothpicks Autoclave bag disposable Advance Preparation 1 Provide each student with a compoundmicroscope millimeter ruler bottle of immersion oil lens paper and millimeter grid slide A supply of glass cleaner such as WindexTM should be available for lens cleaning to Have available slides of the letter e and slides of crossed colored threads Some instructors prefer to have slides for an entire semester available in individual boxes which can be handed out to students Others prefer to keep the slides on trays to be distributed as needed E Set up an area for wet mount supplies including clean microscope slides and coverslips flattipped tooth picks physiologic saline methylene blue stain or iodine and filter paper or set out prepared slides of cheek epithelial cells Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc 4 Set up a disposal area containing a 1L beaker of 10 bleach solution and an autoclave bag Note Detailed instructions for treatment and disposal of materials used in labs involving human tissue and excretions are found in the preface of this Instructor Guide Equot If the microscopes are binocular rather than monocular give additional instructions on focusing a After the parts of the microscope have been identified turn on the light and adjust the interpupillary distance so that a single circle of light is visible through the eyepieces This is difficult for some stu dents usually because they are moving back and forth and changing their eye position Have each student record hisher own interpupillary distance for later use b For a microscope with an adjustable left eyepiece focus the microscope as directed using the right eye only c Focus using the left eyepiece with the right eye closed Both eyepieces should now be focused on the specimen Reverse the directions if the right eyepiece is adjustable Ch The directions for perceiving depth p 33 are for microscopes with objective lenses that advance and retract during focusing If the stage moves during focusing the superior thread will come into focus first if these directions are followed Alter instructions if necessary Comments and Pitfalls 1 Be sure to have the students check the orientation of the letter 9 on the slide before putting the slide on the microscope If they forget to check they will miss the point of the exercise 2 Beware of common focusing problems dirty lenses inverted slide objective lens not securely in place and wrong lens in position oil immersion instead of highpower E It is difficult to use a millimeter ruler to measure the working distance of the highpower and oil immer sion lenses on some microscopes A best estimate is usually sufficient Many students have difficulty with the section on determining the size of the microscope field The direct measurement is usually no problem although some students measure area rather than diameter and some students will have both the letter 9 slide and the grid on the stage at the same time Emphasize that direct measurement should be done using only one lens Otherwise measuring discrepancies cause confusion The problem is often with the math involved It is probably worthwhile to stop the class and work through the use of the formula p 32 when you see that most students are at this point in the exercise Clarify what is meant by detail observed in the chart on p 31 is 05quot Students may forget safety precautions when preparing the wet mount Emphasize the importance of fol lowing directions for safe disposal of toothpicks and proper cleanup of glassware Many students forget to adjust the iris diaphragm and may end up using the light at its highest intensity which is hard on the bulb Remind students that the iris diaphragm should be adjusted so that the field is just filled with light when observed with the ocular lens removed In practice it may be necessary to adjust the iris diaphragm for best contrast although some resolution may be lost gt1 Answers to PreLab Quiz p 27 d stage N b the slide should be in focus at higher magnifications once it is properly focused at lower magnifications 350 X c with special lens paper and cleaner false 995 true 12 Exercise 3 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc Answers to Activity Questions Activity 2 Viewing Objects Through the Microscope pp 30 31 5 Answers will vary depending on the lenses used Working distance decreases as lens power increases The 9 appears upside down and backwards 6 The image moves toward you The image moves to the right 7 and 8 Grains begin to appear and are very visible with the highpower lens The image is much larger The entire 9 is visible with the lowpower lens but less than 14 of the letter is probably visible with the highpower lens The field is smaller The object must be centered so that it falls into the field of the higher power lens The light to the field is reduced as the iris diaphragm is closed The light intensity often must be increased when changing to a higher magnification as the lens has a smaller diameter and therefore lets in less light In practice if the microscope does not have a variable light intensity adjustment the iris diaphragm should be adjusted to obtain the best contrast 9 Yes Grains are very visible The working distance is less than that of the highpower lens It is desirable to begin focusing with a lowpower lens because the field is larger making it easier to find the specimen on the slide and the working distance is larger reducing the chance of hitting the slide with the lens Activity 3 Estimating the Diameter of the Microscope Field pp 32 33 3 Answers depend on the field diameter of lenses used For lenses with field diameters of 18 millimeters 045 millimeter and 018 millimeter respectively the estimated lengths are about 12 millimeters 014 millimeter and 018 millimeter 4 No The entire length of the object cannot be seen in one field The estimate should be made with a lower power objective lens Activity 4 Perceiving Depth p 33 2 When the stage descends the first clearly focused thread is the bottom thread the last clearly focused thread is the top one Answers depend on the order of the threads on the particular slides used Activity 5 Preparing and Observing a Wet Mount pp 33 34 8 Most of the cells are separated from each other rather than in a continuous sheet 10 A cheek epithelial cell is about 807100 micrometers p 008701 millimeter in diameter They are more similar to those in Figure 35 and easier to measure because they are in a continuous sheet Exercise 3 13 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc The Microscope Care and Structure of the Compound Microscope 1 Label all indicated pans of the microscope Ocular lenses Rotating nosepiece Objective lenses Power switch Stage Light control Mechanical stage Iris diaphragm lever Coarse adjustment Condenser knOb Fine adjustment Snbstage light knob Base 2 Explain the proper technique for transpo ing the microscope Carry with two handsione supporting the base the other holding the arm Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc 3 The following statements are true or false If true write T on the answer blank lf false correct the statement by writing on 2quot Equot the blank the proper word or phrase to replace the one that is underlined with gritifree Zens paper 1 Zowipower or scanning 2 over the stage T away from 4 T 5 and oil lenses The microscope lens may be cleaned with any soft tissue The microscope should be stored with the oil immersion lens in position 3 When beginning to focus the lowest power lens should be used When focusing always focus toward the specimen A coverslip should always be used with wet mounts and the highpower Match the microscope structures given in column B with the statements in column A that identify or describe them Column A l 1 platform on which the slide rests for viewing d 2 used to increase the amount of light passing through the specimen a 3 secures the slide to the stage b 4 delivers a concentrated beam of light to the specimen C 5 used for precise focusing once initial focusing has been done f 6 carries the objective lenses rotates so that the differ ent objective lenses can be brought into position over the specimen Define the following terms Virtual image An image that is erect and appears to be where it is not Column B r meopocp coarse adjustment knob condenser fine adjustment knob iris diaphragm mechanical stage or spring clips movable nosepiece objective lenses ocular stage resolution Ability to discriminate two closely situated objects as separate Copyright 2011 Pearson Education lnc Review Sheet 3 15 Viewing Objects Through the Microscope 6 Complete or respond to the following statements W H 9 l The distance from the bottom of the objective lens in use to the specimen is called M 2 Assume there is an object on the left side of the field that you want to bring to the center that is toward the apparent right In what direction would you move your slide gm 3 The area of the specimen seen when looking through the microscope is the 95 4 If a 39 I as a lOgtlt ocular and the total magnification at a particular time is 950gtlt the objective lens in use at that time is X w 5 Why should the light be dimmed when looking at living nearly transparent cells 1 an Om 6 If after focusing in low power only the fine adjustment need be used to focus the specimen at the higher powers the microscope is said to be 03975 7 If when using a 10gtlt ocular and a 15gtlt objective the field size is 15 mm the approximate field size with a 30gtlt objective is mm 04 8 If the size of the highpower field is 12 mm an object that occupies approximately a third of that field has an estimated diameter of mm You have been asked to prepare a slide with the letter k on it as shown below In the circle below draw the k as seen in the lowpower field Figure out the magnification of fields 1 and 3 and the field size of 2 Hint Use your ruler Note that the numbers for the field sizes below are too large to represent the typical compound microscope lens system but the relationships depicted are accurate 5mm imm 05mm l O 2 O 3 v Lx 100gtlt ix Say you are observing an object in the lowpower field When you switch to high power it is no longer in your field of view Why might this occur The field decreases proportionately as magni cation increases Therefore unless the object is centered at low power it might be outside the higheripowerfield What should be done initially to prevent this from happening Gem the 0278 that 3 0 mm 0 View Do the following factors increase or decrease as one moves to higher magmfications with the microscope resolution 1 quot eases 0 a POW amount of light needed 1 quot eases working distance decreases depth of field decreases Review Sheet 3 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc 11 A student has the highdry lens in position and appears to be intently observing the specimen The instructor noting a work ing distance of about 1 cm knows the student isn t actually seeing the specimen HOW so The working distancefor the hp lens is closer to 1 mm H N Describe the proper procedure for preparing a wet mount Place the specimen on the slide With a medicine dropper or place a drop ofwater or saline on the slide Mix specimen into drop using a toothpick If staining add a drop ofstain and mix With a toothpick Hold a coverslip with forceps so that the coverslip touches one side of the specimen drop and then slowly and carefully lower the angled coverslip onto the specinwn 13 Indicate the probable cause of the following situations arising during use of a microscope at only half of the field is 39n 39 I The lens is not correctly rotated into place b Field does not change as mechanical Stage is moved The slide isnot correctly positioned in the clamp on the mechanical stage and does not move when the mechanical stage moves Review Sheet 3 17 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education lnc A The Cell Anatomy and Division The Anatomy of the Composite Cell section can be given as an out of class assignment to save time This might be necessary if audiovisual material is used Time Allotment 2 hours Multimedia Resources See Appendix B for Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors Inside the Cell WNS CDROM Inside the Living Cell WNS VHS set of 5 An Introduction to the Living Cell CBS 30 minutes VHS DVD A Journey Through the Cell FHS VHS DVD Part One Cells An Introduction 25 minutes Part Two Cell FunctionsA Closer Look 25 minutes Mitosis WNS CDROM Mitosis and Meiosis DE 23 minutes VHS DVD Practice Anatomy LabTM 20 PAL BC CDROM Website Laboratory Materials Ordering information is based on a lab size of 24 students working in groups of 4 A list of supply house addresses appears in Appendix A 3D model of composite cell or chart 24 slides of teased smooth muscle 24 compound microscopes lens paper of cell anatomy 24 slides of human blood cell smear lens cleaning solution immersion 24 slides of simple squamous 24 slides of sperm oil epithelium 24 slides of Whitefish blastulae 3D models of mitotic stages Video or animation of mitosis Advance Preparation H Set out slides one per student of simple squamous epithelium teased smooth muscle human blood cell smear sperm and Whitefish blastulae Students will also need lens paper lens cleaning solution immer sion oil and compound microscopes E0 Set out a model or a lab chart of a composite cell and models of mitotic stages Comments and Pitfalls l Observing differences and similarities in cell structure often gives students trouble as many of them have never seen any cells other than epithelial cells Slides or pictures of these cell types might help Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc Answers to PreLab Quiz p 39 l The structural and functional unit 6 interphase of all living things 739 false a chromatin 839 Four d selective permeability 939 by intelphase Ribosomes 10 false 5quot c mitochondria Answers to Activity Questions Activity 5 Observing Various Cell Structures pp 43 45 4 Simple squamous epithelial cells are relatively large and irregularly friedegg shaped Smooth muscle cells are also relatively large but are long and spindle shaped Red blood cells and sperm are both exam ples of small cells Red blood cells appear round while sperm cells are streamlined with long agella Cell shape is often directly related to function Epithelial cells fit tightly together and cover large areas Elongated muscle cells are capable of shortening during contraction The red blood cells are small enough to fit through capillaries and are actually biconcave in shape which makes them flexible and increases surface area not obvious to the students at this point Sperm cells streamlined shape and agella are directly related to efficient locomotion The sperm cells have visible projections flagella which are necessary for sperm motility The function of sperm is to travel through the female reproductive system to reach the ovum in the uterine tubes This requires motility provided by the flagella None of the cells lacks a plasma membrane Mature red blood cells have no nucleus Nucleoli Will probably be clearly visible in the epithelial cells and possibly visible in the other nuclei No Identifiable organelles are not visible in most of these cells Filaments may be visible in the smooth muscle preparations The details of organelle structure are usually below the limit of resolution of the light microscope Unless special stains are used there is no way to see or distinguish the organelles at this level Exercise 4 Copyrigm 20H Pearson Education inc A The Cell Anatomy and Division Anatomy of the Composite Cell 1 Define the following terms Hzghly organzzed zntracellular structure that performs a speczfzc metabolzc functzonsfor the cell organelle cell The baszc structural andfunctzonal umt oflzvzng orgamsms 2 Although cells have differences that reflect their specific functions in the body what functions do they have in common Abzlzty to metabolzze to reproduce to grow zncrease m mass to respond to a stzmulus and to move 3 Identify the following cell parts Plasma sz m w 1 external boundary of cell regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell site of cell signaling 1313030 2 contains digestive enzymes of many varieties suicide sac of the cell W OCh mdna 3 scattered throughout the cell major site of ATP synthesis WW7th 4 slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area WWW 5 stored glycogen granules crystals pigments and so on G015 apparatus 6 membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles packages proteins for export W016 7 control center of the cell necessary for cell division and cell life WWI 8 two rodshaped bodies near the nucleus direct formation of the mitotic spindle WWW 9 dense darkly staining nuclear body packaging site for ribosomes W 10 contractile elements of the cytoskeleton rough ER or endoplasmzc reticulum ll membranous system involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of mem brane lipids quotbosom 12 attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm synthesize proteins chromatm or chromatm threads 13 threadlike structures in the nucleus contain genetic material DNA Pam lsome 14 site of free radical detoxification 20 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc 4 In the following diagram label all parts provided With a leader line Nuclear envelupe Chromatin are nuclear pure l Nucleus l l reticulum R ibusumes M icrutubu le Miluchundriurl Intermediate ft39 laments P erukisume Differences and Similarities in Cell Structure 5 For each of the following cell types list a one important structural characteristic observed in the laboratory and b the function that the structure complements or ensures J A 1 cells fit clusely tagetner like fluur tiles b often a lining armuering tissue Spam 1 has a tail Dr flagellum b alluws sperm ta prapel itself tn an egg smoom muscle 1 cells have an elangated shape b a lung aeis allcrws a greater degree ufsnartening Revlew Sheet 4 21 CDWHQM 2011 Pearson Educallun inc mdblood cans 1 anucleateurnu nucleusdiscshaped b large surface area mare mum ukygeyi i Limited iife spari Dues nut repmdu e The nucleus is game therefure the c praieiris etc Did it eVerhaVe a nucleus 13 If so when Befm its release 239an the blundrtream 7 Of the four cells observed microscopically squamous epithelial cells red blood cells smooth muscle cells and sperm Which has the smallest diameter 51 9quot Which is longest 5mm W455 18 W 51 8quot variable Cell Division Mitosis and Cytokinesis 8 Identify p 3 N f r 599 i a 1 metaphase C pruphase 939 c quotA a h v repair 10 Draw the phases of mitosis for a cell L 22 Review Sheet4 Copyngm 2011 Peavsun Educatiun inc 11 Complete or respond to the following statements 1 WWW Division of the is referred to as mitosis Cytokinesis is division of 2 cytoplasm the 2 The major structural difference between chromatin and chromo somes is that the latter are 3 Chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers by 339 coiledcomiensedshortened undivided structures called 4 If a cell undergoes mitosis but not cytoki nesis the product is 5 The structure that acts as a scaffolding for chro 4 cemmmeres mosomal attachment and movement is called the i Lis the period of cell 39 a bmmlwle cell or life when the cell is not involved in division Two cell populations in the body 5 mmmmlwled cell that do not routinely undergo cell d1v1s1on are i and i 39 639 spindle 739 interphase 839 MMVOI LS 939 skeletal and cardiac muscle cells 12 Using the key categorize each of the events described below according to the phase in which it occurs K ey a anaphase b interphase c metaphase d prophase e telophase d 1 Chromatin coils and condenses forming chromosomes 1 2 The chromosomes are V shaped e 3 The nuclear envelope reforms e 4 Chromosomes stop moving toward the poles C 5 Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell d 6 The nuclear envelope fragments d 7 The mitotic spindle forms b 8 DNA synthesis occurs b 9 Centrioles replicate d 10 C first appear to be duplex structures d or a 5 M d 11 C are attached to the kinetochore fibers 8 12 Cleavage furrow forms a and C 103 be d 13 The nuclear envelopes is absent 13 What is the physical advantage of the chromatin coiling and condensing to form short chromosomes at the onset of mitosis Short compact bodies are mechanically much easier to manipulate during mitosis than are long thin chromatin threads Review Sheet 4 23 Copyrigm 20H Pearson Education inc A The Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Wet Lab This exercise has many parts to it If students have had an introductory cell biology course much of it should be review Time Allotment Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Agar Geliset up 5 minutes observation 60 minutes Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Waterwbservations at end of lab session 10 minutes Observing Diffusion and Osmosis Through Nonliving Membranesiset up 15 minutes diffusion 60 minutes observation 20 minutes Investigating Diffusion and Osmosis Through Living Membranes 25 minutes Experiment liset up 10 minutes observation 60 minutes Experiment 2715 minutes Observing the Process of Filtrationil5 minutes Observations for diffusion and osmosis through living membranes osmometer and filtration can be done while waiting for the results of the other experiments Multimedia Resources See Appendix B for Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors An Introduction to the Living Cell CBS 30 minutes VHS Mitosis and Meiosis DE VHS DVD 23 minutes The Outer Envelope WNS 15 minutes VHS The Plasma Membrane and Cellular Transport CVB CDROM Solutions Agar Gel 15 Weigh out 15 grams of dried agar Slowly add 1 liter of distilled water while heating Bring slowly to a boil stirring constantly until the agar dissolves For immediate use allow the agar to cool to about 45 C Pour into petri dishes to solidify Refrigerate in an inverted position If the plates are to be kept for a longer time more than one day autoclave the agar solution in the ask pour into sterile petri plates allow the agar to solidify invert the plates and store in a refrigerator Benedict s Solution 0 1730 grams sodium citrate 0 1000 grams sodium carbonate anhydrous o 173 grams cupric sulfate pure crystalline Add the citrate and carbonate salts to 70L800 milliliters distilled water and heat to dissolve Add the cupric sulfate to 100 milliliters distilled water and heat to dissolve Cool the solutions and then com bine Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution Benedict s solution is available for purchase from biology supply companies such as Carolina WARD S or Fisher Bleach Solution 10 Measure out 100 milliliters of bleach and add water to a final volume of 1 liter Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc Glucose 40 For each 100 milliliters of solution weigh out 40 grams of glucose and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water It may be necessary to heat the mixture to get the glucose into solution Refrigerate when not in use Methylene Blue Solution 01M Weigh out 32 grams of methylene blue powder and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water Physiologic Saline Mammalian 09 Weigh out 9 grams of NaCl Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter Make fresh immediately prior to experiment Potassium Permanganate solution 01M 16 Weigh out 16 grams of potassium permanganate crystals and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water Silver Nitrate 29 or 3 Weigh out 29 grams for 29 or 3 grams for 3 of silver nitrate Use caution this is an oxidiz ing substance Add distilled water to make 100 milliliters of solution Store in lightresistant bottles Make fresh for each use Sodium Chloride NaCl 5 Weigh out 5 grams NaCl Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters Sodium Chloride NaCl 10 For each 100 milliliters of solution weigh out 10 grams of NaCl and bring to 100 milliliters with dis tilled water It may be necessary to heat the mixture to get the NaCl into solution Sucrose 3 0 For each 100 milliliters of solution weigh out 30 grams of sucrose and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water It may be necessary to heat the mixture to get the sucrose into solution Refrigerate when not in use Sucrose 40 with Congo Red Dye For each 100 milliliters of solution weigh out 40 grams of sucrose and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water Add Congo red dye as necessary to color the solution red It may be necessary to heat the solution to get the sucrose into solution Refrigerate when not in use Uncooked Starch Solution Add 20 grams of corn starch to 100 milliliters of distilled water and gently stir to form a milky solu tion After 15 minutes stir again Stir before making filtration solution Refrigerate when not in use Laboratory Materials Ordering information is based on a lab size of 24 students working in groups of 4 A list of supply house addresses appears in Appendix A 24 compound microscopes lens paper lens cleaning solution immersion oil 1 box of slides 1 box of coverslips 6 petri plates with 15 agar gel 6 dropper bottles of 35 methylene blue solution 6 dropper bottles of 16 potassium permanganate solution 1000milliliter graduated cylinder 6 15milliliter graduated cylinders Large beaker Thistle tube osmometer Molasses 6 millimeter rule 25 dialysis sacs or small Hefty sandwich bags 12 small funnels 6 dropper bottles of silver nitrate 6 dropper bottles of Benedict s solution Copyright 2011 Pearson Education no 24 test tubes 6 test tube holders 6 test tube racks 18 wax markers 6 25milliliter graduated cylinders 24 250milliliter beakers 6 dropper bottles of 40 glucose solution 6 dropper bottles of 10 NaCl solution 6 rolls of fine twine or 48 dialysis tubing clamps Exercise 5A 25 6 laboratory balances Animal blood if used 6 dropper bottles of distilled water 6 dropper bottles of physiologic saline mammalian 09 6 dropper bottles of 5 NaCl solution Container of 10 bleach solution 6 wash bottles of 10 bleach 12 medicine droppers Autoclave bag disposable Disposable gloves 7 ring stands rings and clamps Filter paper or paper towels 1 box of flattipped toothpicks Millimeterruled graph paper 6 200milliliter bottles of 40 sucrose solution colored with congo red ye Videotape of phagocytosis if available VHS or DVD player Solution of uncooked starch powdered charcoal and copper sulfate CuSO4 crystals Potassium permanganate crystals 10milliliter graduated cylinder 100milliliter beaker 12 400milliliter beakers 12 deshelled eggs 6 200milliliter bottles of 30 sucrose solution 6 dropper bottles of Lugol s Iodine lKl solution 48 weight boats Distilled water Advance Preparation Note This lab has many components Either clearly designate supply areas for each part of the lab or provide each lab group with its own set of supplies at the outset The supplies for each part of the exercise are listed separately in case sections of the exercise are omitted Some equipment is com mon to several parts of the lab 1 Set out slides and coverslips Have compound microscopes available 2 Observing Di usion of Dye Through Agar Gel Set out 01M or 35 methylene blue solution Carolina and 01M or 16 potassium permanganate solution Carolina 15 agar plates 12 milliliters of 15 agar per plate one per group medicine droppers and millimeter rulers E Observing Di usion of Dye Through Water Demonstration On the morning of the laboratory session place some crystals of potassium permanganate in the bottom of a 1000milliliter graduated cylinder Slowly and carefully fill the cylinder to the 1000milliliter mark with water Record the time at which the demonstration is set up Set out millimeter rulers b Observing Di usion and Osmosis Through Nonliving Membranes For each group set out four dialysis sacs WARD S or 10centimeter lengths of dialysis tubing Carolina five 250milliliter beakers a wax marking pencil 750 milliliters of distilled water 20 milliliters of 10 NaCl solution 20 milliliters of 40 sucroseCongo red dye solution 150 milliliters of 40 glucose solution dropper bottles of Benedict s solution Carolina or see above silver nitrate four test tubes a test tube rack test tube holder small graduated cylinder a small funnel hot plate and balance Dialysis sacs can be prepared from cut sections of dialysis tubing Soak dialysis tubng in a beaker of water for about 15 minutes Once dialysis tubing has been soaked open it by rubbing it between the thumb and forefinger until the tubing material sepa rates Tie the ends with fine twine or close with dialysis tubing closures Carolina Small Hefty sand wich bags can also be used to make dialysis bags U1 Observing Osmometer Results Demonstration At the beginning of the laboratory session set up an osmometer using a thistle tube and molasses Fill the expanded end of the thistle tube with molasses and cover it securely with a differentially permeable membrane Clamp the thistle tube to a stand and put the broad end into a beaker of distilled water Mark the level of the molasses in the tube and record the time that the osmometer is set up Set out millimeter rulers 0 Investigating Di usion and Osmosis Through Living Membranes Experiment 1 Deshell eggs 48 to 72 hours before the day of the lab To deshell eggs immerse eggs in vinegar After 24 hours gently rub eggs under running water to remove shell If there is any shell remain ing immerse in fresh vinegar Repeat rubbing under water and immersion in fresh vinegar until all shell has been removed Give each group 2 deshelled eggs two 400ml beakers 200 ml distilled water 200 ml 30 sucrose solution wax markers paper towels weight boat and laboratory balance Experiment 2 Give each group 6 microscope slides and coverslips dropper bottles of distilled water filter paper plastic gloves physiologic saline 5 NaCl a vial of animal blood and medicine droppers one per student Set out a basin of 10 bleach a wash bottle of 10 bleach and a disposable autoclave bag 26 Exercise 5A Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc 7 Observing the Process of Filtration Give each group a ring stand with ring clamp and ring attached a funnel a piece of filter paper a beaker a lOml graduated cylinder 100 ml filtration solution and a drop per bottle of Lugol s iodine Prepare the filtration solution by mixing 100 ml uncooked starch solution 10 grams copper sulfate and 10 grams powdered charcoal Comments and Pitfalls l Caution students to keep careful track of time during the diffusion experiments Lab timers might help Suggestions for variables include different concentrations of solutions Dialysis sacs may leak Check to see that they are tightly sealed You may substitute CljnitestTM tablets for Benedict s solution Silver nitrate will stain and possibly damage clothing Warn students to be careful Note that the 40 glucose solution used in sac l of the osmosis experiment is not isoosmotic to the 10 NaCl solution in sac 3 so caution students about the types of conclusions they may draw from this experi ment Also sometimes no glucose will be present in the beaker at the end of the hour You may need to extend the time for this part of the experiment 9595 Fquot Emphasize the importance of labeling test tubes and slides Red blood cells in physiologic saline may begin to crenate as the slide begins to dry out Encourage stu dents to make their observations quickly If there is still trouble with crenation use a slightly hypotonic saline solution gt1 Caution students to be careful when pouring starch solution into filter paper so that the solution does not over ow or cause the filter paper to collapse 00 Answers to PreLab Quiz p 53 diffusion H b it contains more nonpenetrating solute particles than the interior of the cell d vesicular transport phagocytosis 9595 active Answers to Activity Questions Activity 1 Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Agar Gel pp 55 56 6 Potassium permanganate NW 158 diffused more rapidly than methylene blue MW 320 The smaller the molecular weight the faster the rate of diffusion The dye molecules moved because they possess kinetic energy Activity 2 Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Water p 56 4 Potassium permanganate diffuses more rapidly through the water Although the agar gel is largely water it does contain more solid particles which hinder free diffusion Activity 3 Observing Diffusion and Osmosis Through Nonliving Membranes pp 56 58 5 After 1 hour sac l originally containing 40 glucose should have gained weight Water is moving into the sac by osmosis Glucose is still present in the sac and a small amount of glucose may also be present in the beaker If the Benedict s test is positive glucose was able to pass through the dialysis membrane Fquot There should be no net weight change in sac 2 Since the concentrations of glucose and water are the same on both sides of the membrane there is no net movement of water or glucose Exercise 5A 27 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc 7 Sac 3 will increase in weight perhaps only by a small amount There has been a net movement of water into the sac and the weight of the water was not completely off set by the movement of the NaCl out of the sac The solution in beaker 3 reacts with silver nitrate indicating the presence of chloride in the beaker Net dialysis of NaCl occurred 00 There should be an increase in weight in sac 4 The water color did not turn pink the dye was not able to diffuse out of the sac The Benedict s test for sugar was negative Sucrose did not diffuse from the sac to the beaker The dye and sucrose are too large to diffuse through the pores in the membrane or their rate of diffusion is too slow given the allowed time 9 Net osmosis occurred in situations 1 3 and 4 Net simple diffusion occurred in situations 1 3 and 4 Water molecules are very small and move quickly down a concentration gradient Na and Cl in solution behave like slightly larger molecules but are smaller than glucose molecules which move slowly if at all through the dialysis tubing See item 5 in Comments and Pitfalls Note Students may only be able to conclude that Na and C1 in solution and water molecules are small and glucose sucrose and Congo red dye molecules are larger or that Na and C1 in solution and water and glucose molecules are smaller than sucrose molecules The dialysis sac is often compared to the plasma membrane of the cell Activity 4 Observing Osmometer Results p 58 Net osmosis movement of water into the molasses occurred as shown by the increased distance that the col umn of water moved Activity 5 Investigating Diffusion and Osmosis Through Living Membranes Experiment 1 pp 58 59 Conclusions The egg placed in the distilled water gained weight because the egg is hypertonic to the distilled water The egg placed in 30 sucrose solution lost weight because the egg 14 solution is hypotonic to the 30 sucrose solution Water moves from the area of higher water concentration into an area of lower water concentration Activity 5 Investigating Diffusion and Osmosis Through Living Membranes Experiment 2 pp 59 60 3 The cells begin to shrink and develop a multipointed star shape 4 When distilled water is added the cells should begin to revert to their normal shape Eventually they begin to look very bloated and finally begin to disappear as their membranes burst open Activity 6 Observing the Process of Filtration p 60 3 Passed starch copper sulfate water Retained powdered charcoal The filter paper represents a cell membrane The filtration rate was greatest during the first lOsecond counting period because the hydrostatic pressure was greater during that period The characteristic of the three solutes that determines whether or not they passed through the filter paper is their size in relation to the size of the pores in the filter paper 28 Exercise 5A Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE The Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Wet Lab Choose all answers that apply to questions 1 and 2 and place their letters on the response blanks to the right 1 Molecular motion 0 03 a reflects the kinetic energy of molecules b reflects the potential energy of molecules c is ordered and predictable d is random and erratic 2 Velocity of molecular movement 5 C a is higher in larger molecules b is lower in larger molecules c increases with increasing temperature d decreases with increasing temperature e reflects kinetic energy 3 Summarize the results of Activity 3 diffusion and osmosis through nonliving membranes below List and explain your ob servations relative to tests used to identify diffusing substances and changes in sac weight observed Sac 1 containing 40 glucose suspended in distilled water Glucose di used from the sac into the water using the Benedict s test indicated the presence of the glucose that passed through the membrane Water moved into the sac by osmosis sac gained weight Sac 2 containing 40 glucose suspended in 40 glucose There was no net di usion of glucose or osmosis because the water concentration on both sides of the membrane was the same Net movement occurs only when there is a concentration gradient Sac 3 containing 10 NaCl suspended in distilled water NaC l di used from the sac into the water silver nitrate added to the water showed the presence of C l Osmosis caused water to enter the sac because the solution in the sac was hypertonic to the distilled water in the beaker Sac 4 containing 40 sucrose and Congo red dye suspended in distilled water The Congo red dye did not di use from the sac into the water the water in the beaker did not turn red The sucrose did not di itse from the sac upon boiling some of the sucrose bonds are hydrolyzed releasing glucose and fructose Using Benedict s test then indicates the presence of glucose if sucrose passed through the membrane the Benedict s test was negative Water moved into the sac by osmosis the sac gained weight Copyright 2011 Pearson Education lnc 4 What single characteristic of the differentially permeable membranes used in the laboratory determines the substances that II ex 1 can pass through them 5126 OfPOVeS In addition to this characteristic what other factors in uence the passage of substances through living membranes Solubility in the lipid portion of the membrane ami or presence of membrane carriers for the substances A semipermeable sac containing 4 NaCl 9 glucose and 10 albumin is suspended in a solution with the following com position 10 NaCl 10 glucose and 40 albumin Assume that the sac is permeable to all substances except albumin State whether each of the following will a move into the sac b move out of the sac or c not move glucose a moves into sac albumin 5 does not move b moves out ofsac water Nacp a moves into sac Summarize the results of Activity 5 Experiment 1 diffusion and osmosis through living membranesithe egg below List and explain your observations Egg 1 in distilled water The egg gained weight because the concentration ofthe egg 14 is hypertonic to the water Water moves by osmosis from an area of higher water concentration into an area of lower water concentration Egg 2 in 30 sucrose The egg lost weight because the concentration ofthe egg 14 is hypotonic to the 30 sucrose solution Water moves by osmosisfrom an area ofhigher water concentration into an area oflower water concentration The diagrams below represent three microscope fields containing red blood cells Arrows show the direction of net osmosis Which field contains a hypertonic solution C The cells in this field are said to be quotmated Which field contains an isotonic bathing solution 5 Which field contains a hypotonic solution a What is happening to the cells in this eld Hemolysis they are bursting as excessive water entry occurs a b 6 Review Sheet 5A Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc 8 Assume you are conducting the experiment illustrated in the next figure Both hydrochloric acid HCl with a molecular weight of about 365 and ammonium hydroxide NH 4OH with a molecular weight of 35 are volatile and easily enter the gaseous state When they meet the following reaction will occur HC1 NH4OH gt H20 NH4C1 Ammonium chloride NH4Cl will be deposited on the glass tubing as a smoky precipitate where the two gases meet Pre dict which gas will diffuse more quickly and indicate to which end of the tube the smoky precipitate will be closer a The fasterdiffusing gas is NH4OH b The precipitate forms closer to the HCI end Rubber stopper Cotton wad with HCI Cotton wad with NHAOH l l Support 9 What determines whether a transport process is active or passive Whether 0 quot0 he 06 must WOW e ATPfOV the process ifso the process zs actzve H O Characterize membrane transport as fully as possible by choosing all the phrases that apply and inserting their letters on the answer blanks Passive processes M Active processes b d ffsomenmesl a account for the movement of fats and respiratory gases through the plasma membrane b explain solute pumping phagocytosis and pinocytosis c include osmosis simple diffusion and filtration d may occur against concentration andor electrical gradients e use hydrostatic pressure or molecular energy as the driving force f move ions amino acids and some sugars across the plasma membrane H For the osmometer demonstration Activity 4 explain why the level of the water column rose during the laboratory session The thzstle tube was zmmersed m a dzalyszs sac whzch at turn was zmmersed m water Because water wzll move down zts concentratzon gradient ifzt is able water dz used from the beaker znto the sac where zts concentratzon was much lower As a result the uzd column molasses and entermg water rose at the thzstle tube Review Sheet 5A 31 Copyright 2011 Pearson Education lnc 12 Define the following terms dl mion Movement ofmoleculesfrom a region oftheir higher concentration to an area where they are in lower concentration Osmosis Flow ofwater through a semipermeable or di erentially permeable membrane Water movesfrom an area ofhigher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration from hypotonic an area of low concentration of nonpenetrating solutes to hypertonic an area of higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes SOZMZZOI L Simple dl39 51390quot Movement ofmoleculesfrom a region oftheir higher concentration to a region oftheir lower concentration Its drivzngforce is kinetic energy ofthe molecules themselves ltration Passage of substances across a membrane from an area of higher hydrostatic pressure to an area of lower hydrostatic pressure active transport A transport system that requires that the cell provzde ATP One such system moves substances across the cell membrane attached to a carrier molecule called a solute pump 1 39 Engulfment ofextracellular particles by pseudopodformation Cell eatingquot uidwhase endocywsiy Intake ofextracellular uids by vesicleformation Cell drinkingquot Review Sheet 5A Copyright 2011 Pearson Education mo A Classification of Tissues Time Allotment 2 hours Multimedia Resources See Appendix B for Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors Eroschenko s Interactive Histology AS CDROM PhysioExTM 80 Exercise 63 BC CDROM Website Practice Anatomy LabTM 20 PAL BC CDROM Website WARD S Histology Collection WNS CDROM Laboratory Materials Ordering information is based on a lab size of 24 students working in groups of 4 A list of supply house addresses appears in Appendix A 24 compound microscopes lens paper stratified columnar and section and blood smear lens cleaning solution immersion transitional epithelium 24 slides of skeletal cardiac and oil 24 slides of mesenchyme adipose smooth muscle longitudinal 24 slides of simple squamous simple areolar and dense connective sections cuboidal simple columnar tissue regular tendon and 24 slides of nervous tissue spinal cord stratified squamous nonkerati irregular dermis hyaline smear nized pseudostratified ciliated cartilage elastic cartilage columnar stratified cuboidal fibrocartilage bone cross Advance Preparation 1 Set out prepared slides of simple squamous simple cuboidal simple columnar stratified squamous nonkeratinized pseudostratified ciliated columnar stratified cuboidal stratified columnar and transition al epithelium E0 Set out prepared slides of mesenchyme adipose tissue areolar connective tissue reticular connective tissue dense connective tissue regular tendon and irregular dermis varieties hyaline cartilage elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage bone cross section and blood smear Set out prepared slides of skeletal cardiac and smooth muscle longitudinal sections and teased smooth muscle E b Set out prepared slides of spinal cord smear 5quot Set out lens paper and lens cleaning solution Have compound microscopes available Comments and Pitfalls l Slides of the lung are suggested for simple squamous epithelium and slides of the kidney are suggested for simple cuboidal epithelium An analogy using a quarter or pavement stone will help students visualize the 3dimensional shape of a squamous cell Copyright 2011 Pearson Education inc