Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Human Anatomy & Physiology I BIOL 2021
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This 66 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Lucile Berge on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2021 at University of West Georgia taught by Gregory Payne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see /class/230230/biol-2021-university-of-west-georgia in Biology at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Four Basic Tissue Types Classi ed by Structure shape cell relationships extracellular matrix EPITHELIAL CONNECTIVE Classi ed by Function MUSCLE NERVE Epithelial Tissue Characteristics covers surfaces lines cavities covers and lines organs amp vessels forms glands consists almost entirely of cells minimal extracellular matrix typically one free surface bound to underlying tissues by a noncellular Basement Membrane Basal Lamina in generalno blood supply but are innervated rapid reproductive ratereplacement rate mitosis specialized connections help anchor the cells to one another and to underlying tissues Characteristics of Epithelium Remainder ef bleed vessel wall Free surface B 39 a aV i rEpithelial celis with jasemem little extraceliular membrane i material between 7 the cells EPITHELIAL TISSUE TYPES Squamous at Cuboidal squarecubeshaped Columnar taller than Wide Simple Strati ed Pseud0strati ed Transiti0nal Structure Determines Function Pr0tecti0n strati ed Secreti0nAbs0rpti0n cuboidal amp columnar DiffusionFiltrati0n simple squamous M0vement ciliated 3quot v l39ii l39m Description Single layer of flattened cells with discshaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm the simplest of the epithelia Function Allows passage of materials by diffusion and ltration in sites where protection is not important secretes lubricating substances in serosae Location Kidney glomeruli air sacs of lungs lining of heart blood vessels and lymphatic vessels lining of ventral body cavity serosae Air sacs of lung tissue Nuclei of squamous epithelial cells V s x kg giz is Photomicrograph Simple squamous epithelium forming part of the alveolar air sac walls 125x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Single layer of cubelike cells with large spherical central nuclei Function Secretion and absorption Location Kidney tubules ducts and secretory portions of small glands ovary surface 39 rSimple cuboidal epithelial cells membrane Connec ve ssue Photomicrograph Simple cuboidal epithelium in kidney tubules 430x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei some cells bear cilia layer may contain mucus secreting unicellular glands goblet cells Function Absorption secretion of mucus enzymes and other substances ciliated type propels mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action Location Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract stomach to anal canal gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands ciliated variety lines small bronchi uterine tubes and some regions of the uterus aspw Simple columnar epithelial cell Basement membrane Photomicrograph Simple columnar epithelium of the stomach mucosa 860X Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc d Pseudostra fled columnar epithelium Description Single layer of cells of differing heights some not reaching the free surface nuclei seen at C39I39a different levels may contain mucus 1 Mucus 0f secreting cells and bear cilia Mucous cell Pseudo r stratified Function Secretion particularly of V I epithelial mucus propulsion of mucus by 3 39 layer ciliary action 39 4 I Location Nonciliated type in male s spermcarrying ducts and ducts of large glands ciliated variety lines the trachea most of the upper respiratory tract Basement membrane Photomicrograph Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lining the human trachea 570x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc If Bindingd unlumnar ep hellum Damrhtlan Swarm DEquot layam basal cells usually cuboidal smerficial malls elungalad and mlumnar Funeliun Pm39lacllnnc seamllcm Lacunan Flam In 1113 may small alumnus In mam urelma and In large duals ol mme glands Urethra stralllled columnar apllhell um Baaamanl membrane Undanlying nmnediva liasua e Strati ed squamous epithelium Description Thick membrane composed of several cell layers basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active surface cells are flattened squamous in the keratinized type the surface cells are full of keratin and dead basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more super cial layers Function Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion Location Nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus mouth and vagina keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin a dry membrane K Stratified squamous epithelium FNuclei Basement membrane Connective tissue Photomicrograph Stratified squamous epithelium lining the esophagus 285x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal basal cells cuboidal or columnar surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike depending Function Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine Location Lines the ureters urinary bladder and part of the urethra Transitional epithelium Basement Y membrane Connective ssue Photomicrograph Transitional epithelium lining the urinary bladder relaxed state 360X note the bulbous or rounded appearance of the cells at the surface these cells flatten and become elongated when the bladder is filled with urine Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc GLANDS Two Types Exocrinesecretes products onto body surfaces or into body cavities generally through ducts classi ed according to numbers of cells shape branchingsimple vs compound acinar tubular alveolar Unicellular Goblet Cells mucin Merocrineproducts only eg sweat glands Apocrineproducts gland cell fragments secretory cell repair eg mammary glandsMerocrine L Holocrine products cells secretory cell death eg sebaceous glands Endocrinesecretes products directly into interstitial spaces Without ducts Ch 16 vesicles containing mucin apparatus Nucleus Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 7 Lubes 7 Secretary Fibmus capsule Duct system J Septum of fibmustissue f i l Sacremw pmducl 4amp1 39 Em Secretary unit vesicles acinusfi b1 Tubular secretory structure Alveolar secretory structure Simple duct structure duct does not branch Compound duct structure duct branches Simple tubular Simple branched tubular Example Stomach gastric glands Compound tubular Example Duodenal glands of small intestine Example Intestinal glands Acinar glands Simple alveolar Example No important example in humans Simple branched alveolar Example Sebaceous oil glands Compound alveolar Example Mammary glands Compound tubuloalveolar Example Salivary glands D Surface epithelium Duct Secretory epithelium Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Secretory vesicles a Merocrine glands secrete their products by exocytosis Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc r Secretory 39 a t cell fragments APOCRINE b In holocrine glands the entire secretory cell ruptures releasing secretions and dead cell fragments Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Stilt El ph s n Tale AMEN amp Physiology 4111 di tl l lr copyrlghl 399 1593 1113 McGr wHill Eompmies Inc All rights rescruel Exocrine Glands and Secretion Types Secretion in duct Pinchedoft portion Dying cell releases of cell in the secretion secretory product s Vesicle releasing z r f f i ReplaceEssie quotv w3913939j merit Vesicle containing Secretory products Eell shed into secretoryr products stored in the cell the duct 3 MEROCRINE h APOCRINE c HOLOCRINE CONNECTIVE TISSUE CHARACTERISTICS Cell types Extracellular 39 m trix iGround substance Macrophage 39 a 39 Fibers v k 4 Collagen fiber 0 Elastic fiber Reticular fiber cell extracellular matrix Fibroblast extracellular matrix is secreted LVmP CVe 39 by the cells Fa Ge Cell Types Mas mquot Blasts create the matrix quotWWWquot Cytes maintain the matrix Clasts break down the matrix Matrix Components protein bers collagen reticular bers amp elastin and ground substance protein minerals hydroxyapatites proteOglycans GAGs cell adhesion proteins bronectin lamininand Loose areolar adipose reticular Dense regular irregular elastic Cartilagenous hyaline brous or elastic Bone Osseous Blood Common embryonic ori n Cellular descendants Fibroblast Fibrocyte Glass of connective ssue resulting a Connective tissue proper cartilage Deseous hone Subclasses 1 Loose connective tissue Types Areolar Adi se Reticular 2 Dense connective tissue Types Regular Irregular Elastic 1 Hyaline cartilage 2 Flhrocartllage 3 Elastic cartilage t Compact Blood cell formatlon bone and dl erenllation are l 2 Spongy cancellous In Chapter 17 bone Matrix comments Gellike ground stance al three tlber types Gellike ground su stance collagen fibers elastln fibers Gellike ground substance hardened wlth calcium salts collagen fibers Liquid plasma no fibers General function Acts as a blnding tissue re 39sts mechanical stress particularly tension Resists compression cushions and supports body structures U Ftlgidness that Fluid tissue resists compression transports oxygen and tension carbon dioxide support nutrientsv hormones wastes Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings YABLE 41 Comparison of Casses of Connective Tissues COMPONENTS TISSUE CLASS AND EXAMPLE Connective Tissue Pro Dense regular connective tissue Cartilage Ki1 Hyaline cartilage Bane Tissue Compact bone Blood SUBCLASSES 1 Loose connective tissue Areolar Adipose Reticular 2 Dense connective tissue Regular Irregular Elastic 1 Hyaline cartilage 2 Elastic cartilage 3 Fibrocartilage 1 Compact bone 2 Spongy bone Blood cell formation and differentiation are quite complex Details are provided in Chapter 17 CELLS Fibroblasts Fibrocytes Defe nse cells Fat cells Chondroblasts found in growing cartilage Chondrocytes Osteoblasts Osteocytes Erythrocytes RBC Leukocytes WBC Platelets MATRIX Gellike ground substance All three fiber types collagen reticular elastic Gelike ground substance Fibers collagen elastic fibers in some Gellike ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Fibers collagen Plasma No fibers Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc GENERAL FEATURES Six different types vary in density and types of fibers Functions as a binding tissue Resists mechanical stress particulary tension Resists compression because of the large amounts of water held in the matrix Functions to cushion and sup port body structures Hard tissue that resists both compression and tension Functions in support A fluid tissue Functions to carry 02 C02 nutrients wastes and other substances hormones for example 16dayold embryo 39 dorsal surface View El Ectoderrn E Mesoderm Endoderm Muscle and connective tissue mostly from W mesoderm Nervous tissue from ectodenn Ep39thel39um Em hryon lc cunnletlvn tissue Ceuyugmmom Pearson Edurxumn In a Mesmchyme Descripliun Embryonic onna ive lissua gellike grcund subslanne cun laining bers starshaped mesenchyrnal cells Funcllcn Elves rise to all 1er conraeclive issue I m Locatinn Prlrnarily In errmry39a Masenchymal Ball Ground Copfright 2001 EQI QTEUT39III I Cummings an imprint I3 Adm421M NESIG y Longrnan Inc a Connective tissue proper loose connective tissue areotar Description Gellike matrix with all three fiber types cells fibroblasts V macrophages mast cells and some V quot I 4 Elastic white blood cells a fibers Function Wraps and cushions organs its macrophages phagocytize I bacteria plays important role in r 39 7 z a Couagen inflammation holds and conveys r r 39 X quot fibers tissue uid Location Widely distributed under 7 epithelia of body eg forms lamina I 39 39 quot 39 Fibroblast propria of mucous membranes U nuclei packages organs surrounds 7 capillaries Epithelium Photomicrograph Areolar connective tissue a Lamquot gt 39 f39 quot soft packaging tissue of the body 300x proprla quot Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc l a Description Matrix as in areolar but very sparse closely packed adipocytes or fat cells have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet Function Provides reserve food Nucleus of fuel insulates against heat loss a fat cell supports and protects organs Location Under skin in the hypodermis around kidneys and eyeballs within abdomen in breasts Adipose 39 Vacuole tissue containing fat droplet Photomicrograph Adipose tissue from the subcutaneous layer under the skin 350x glands Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 144p 3quot Description Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance reticular cells lie on the network Function Fibers form a soft internal skeleton stroma that supports other cell types including white blood cells mast cells and macrophages White blood cell Location Lymphoid organs lymph lymphocyte nodes bone marrow and spleen 39 7 Reticular 39 fibers Spleen Photomicrograph Darkstaining network of reticular connective tissue fibers forming the internal skeleton of the spleen 350x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Primarily parallel collagen fibers a few elastic bers major cell type is the fibroblast Function Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles attaches bones to bones withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction Location Tendons most ligaments aponeuroses 7 Collagen fibers Nuclei of fibroblasts Photomicrograph Dense regular connective tissue from a tendon 500x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers some elastic fibers major cell type is the fibroblast Function Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions provides structural strength Location Fibrous capsules of organs and ofjoints dermis of the skin submucosa of digestive tract Fibrous joint capsule Nuclei of fibroblasts 7 Collagen fibers a Photomicrograph Dense irregular connective tissue from the dermis of the skin 400x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Dense regular connective tissue containing a high proportion of elastic bers Function Allows recoil of tissue following stretching maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration Location Walls of large arteries within certain ligaments associated with the vertebral column within the walls of the bronchial tubes Elastic fibers Photomicrograph Elastic connective tissue in the wall of the aorta 250x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Amorphous but firm matrix collagen fibers form an imperceptible network chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature chondrocytes lie in lacunae Function Supports and reinforces has resilient cushioning properties resists compressive stress Location Forms most of the l 7 embryonic skeleton covers the ends 39 quot 39x v Chondrocyte of long bones in joint cavities forms 7 3 f quot1 in lacuna costal cartilages of the ribs cartilages of the nose trachea and larynx Photomicrograph Hyaline cartilage from the cam39ages trachea 750x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Similar to hyaline cartilage but more elastic fibers in matrix Function Maintains the shape l J u r I a of a structure while allowing 39 7 Fhondrocyte great flexibility A v I I 339 39r In lacuna Location Supports the external ear pinna epiglottis Photomicrograph Elastic cartilage from the human ear pinna forms the flexible skeleton of the ear 800x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage thick collagen fibers predominate Function Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock Location Intervertebral discs pubic symphysis discs of knee joint T 39 V Chondrocytes r r 39 I lntervertebral m acunae discs Collagen fiber is Photomicrograph Fibrocartilage of an intervertebral disc 125x Special staining produced the blue color seen Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 1 Description Hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers osteocytes lie in lacunae Very well vascularized Function Bone supports and protects by enclosing provides levers for the muscles to act on stores calcium and other minerals and fat marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation hematopoiesis Location Bones Photomicrograph Crosssectional view of bone 125x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Description Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix plasma Plasma Function Transport of respiratory gases nutrients wastes and other substances Neutrophil Location Contained within blood vessels Photomicrograph Smear of human blood 1860x two white blood cells neutrophil in upper left and lymphocyte in lower right are seen surrounded by red blood cells Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc MUSCLE TISSUE CHARACTERISTICS Excitable THREE TYPES Skeletalstriated multinucleated attach to bone voluntary Cardiacstriated uninucleated involuntary branched intercalated discs protein disc With numerous gap junctions SmoothVisceral tapered uninucleated involuntary S l 39 Sleplunu Tale Armlemr Jr F rsiaiegy 41h willed cwwrlgl ll a 1993 Tim MchHill Gammalies Inc All rights reserved Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscle fiber Internalated disks 4534 Striatiens Striatinns Nucleus Smooth muscle fiber a Skeletal muscle Description Long cylindrical multinucleate cells obvious striations 7Striations Function Voluntary movement V locomotion manipulation of the Q 39 39 7 7 7 V y Nuclei environment facial expression 39 quot 39 v quot voluntary control Location In skeletal muscles attached to bones or t V r I y occasionally to skin If V g39 1 gt 7Part of 39 I i39 muscle fiber cell 7 Photomicrograph Skeletal muscle approx 460x Notice the obvious banding pattern and the fact that these large cells are multinucleate Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc l 1 391 1quot 1 39gtA39e ii A Description Branching striated generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at 39 quot Str39atmns specialized junctions quot quot intercalated discs 9 7 Intercalated discs 0 Function As it contracts it propels blood into the circulation involuntary control Location The walls of the Nucleus Photomicrograph Cardiac muscle 500X notice the striations branching of cells and the intercalated discs Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc 6 Smooth muscle Description Spindleshaped cells with central nuclei no striations cells arranged closely to form sheets quota 1 Function Propels substances or objects foodstuffs urine a baby along internal passage ways involuntary control Location Mostly in the walls of hollow organs Smooth muscle cell Nuclei Photomicrograph Sheet of smooth muscle 200x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc NERVOUS TISSUE CHARACTERISTICS Excitable replicates slowly or not at all Two Major Cell Types Neuron Nerve Cell Cell Body Soma Perikaryon Dendrites Toward and Axon Away Glial Cells Neuroglia nerveglue support cells nutritiveprotective function specialized Description Neurons are branching cells cell processes that may be quite long extend from the nucleuscontaining cell body also contributing to nervous tissue I are nonirritable supporting cells NUC39e39 0f not illustrated sulrlzporting ce 5 Neuron processes cequot bOdY Axon Dendrites 7 V 7 gt 39 E E a A e T if 1 Cell body u V 7 quot N K of a neuron Function Transmit electrical 1 I signals from sensory receptors quot quot 39 1 c 39 E and to effectors muscles and Neuron glands which control their activity processes Location Brain spinal cord and nerves i Photomicrograph Neurons 350x Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Mucosa of nasal Cutaneous membrane cavity 5km Mucosa of mouth Esophagus lining r 39 39 1 Mucosa of lung a Cutaneous membrane the bronchi skin covers the body surface 1 4 b Mucous membranes line body cavities open to the exterior k L Visceral pleura Visceral Visceral pericardium per39toneum Parietal pericardium c Serous membranes line body cavities closed to the exterior Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc peritoneum Parietal 1 fParietal pleura TISSUE REPAIR Two Methods Regenerationreplacement with same type Fibrosisincreased brous connective tissuescar tissue depends upon 1 type and 2 severity of injury Steps In ammation sets the stage Organization restores blood supply Granulation Tissue Regeneration andor Fibrosis Blood clot in incised wound 39 I Migrating white Inflammatory r blood cell chemicals 39 39 Artery In ammation sets the stage Severed blood vessels bleed and inflammatory chemicals are released 0 Local blood vessels become more permeable allowing white blood cells fluid clotting proteins and other plasma proteins to seep into the injured area Clotting occurs surface dries and forms a scab Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Regenerating epithelium Area of granulation ssue ingrowth Fibroblast quot I Macrophage W r33 7 0 Organization restores the blood supply The clot is replaced by granulation tissue which restores the vascular supply Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that bridge the gap Macrophages phagocytize cell debris Surface epithelial cells multiply and migrate over the granulation tissue Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc Regenerated epithelium Fibrosed area Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair The fibrosed area matures and contracts the epithelium thickens A fully regenerated epithelium with an underlying area of scar tissue results Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Inc The Integument arg Integumentary System Largest organ system Major Components Skin Accessory Structures hair nails muscles glands Major Functions Protection Temperature Regulation Vitamin D Production Sensation Excretion Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis superficial fascia Hair shaft Pore 1 Dermal papillae ipapillary layer l 39 of dermis Free nerve ending Reticular layer of dermis quot oil gland Arrector pili muscle Sensory nerve fiber Eccrine sweat gland Pacinian corpuscle Hair root Hair follicle Hair follicle receptor root hair plexus Eccrine sweat gland Copyright 2006 Pearson Education lnc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Epidermal Layers and Keratinization Stratum corneum 825 Dead cells with a hardl protein enve ape the cells cantain keratin and are surraunded by lipids Stratum lucide Etcad cells lie within dispersed ireratchyalin Stratum granulcsum Keratohyalin and a hard protein envelope form lamcllar bodies micasc lipids cells die Stratum spinnaum 810 Keratirl fibers and lamaliar bodies accumulate Stratum hassle Cells divide by mitosis and some JD cl39 the newly formed cells became the cells cf the more super cial strata Thick Skin 3 quot Superficial intcrccllular ilpl s Keratln Lamallar body releases lipids Fratein envelicpe Karatin fibers Lipidfilled iamellar body Nucleus Basement membrane H Dcsmuscme Hemidcsmcscmc Keratinocytes Macrophages epidermal dendritic l Desmosomes Langerhanswe cells Cells are dead represented Stratum only by flat membranous sacs comeum filled with keratin Glycolipids In extracellular space Cells are flattened organelles deteriorating cytoplasm full of lamellated granules release lipids and keratohyaline granules Stratum granulosum Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of prekeratin Stratum spinosum Cells are actively mitotic stem cells some newly formed cells become part of the more superficial layers Stratum basale Dermis Melanin granules ending Thin Skin 7 V b Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Melanin Transfer from Melanocyte to Keratinocytes 391 A Keratinocytes Melanocyte 4 These Nucleus melanpsomes are within G lgl r i keratinocytes apparatus 39 3 Keratinecytes 1 Melanosume is 2 l u lelanusames move phagocytize the produced by intu melanucyte cell tips of the Golgi apparatus processes melanocyte cell processes Cleavage Lines Tension Lines cleavage lines can gap increasing the time needed fur healing resulting in increased scar tissue furmatian Flexure Llnes V I i 2 g An incision made parallel to eleavage lines results in less gapping faster healing and less scar tissue Apocrine Sweat Glands A I Sebaceous gland Sebaceous gland duct gland Merocrine 3K 1 I 1212 39 r Ions HOH ii57 5 3 A 5quot 3 i V g Vitamins wastes In L as a Sectioned sebaceous gland dermZCZdln b Sectioned eccrine gland Copyright 2006 Pearson Education incl publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sudoriferous glands Hair Shaft Cuticle Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hair Growth Phases Anagen Phase 68 yrsgrowth r I I8 Catagen Phase 23 Wksdegenerative Telogen Phase 13 mosresting L311 1 v 39 quot Eumelanin Halr shaft 7 K M above skin a quot Medulla 211 surface A r if V Carlie Hair quot Cuticle Straight round gt v Wavy oval Halr rout Airflectur Curly flat below skin plll muscle surface 7 Piloerector muscle Sebacenus gland Dermal mat sheath Hair bulb External epithelial Hair base of rant sheath follicle hair rant i R V Internal Epithelial Artery 39 a mi sheath Vein 39 Fat f V Matrix Dermal a illa a P P i a i Diseases amp Poisoning l Zn malnutrition l Mg2Ca2 PKU 7 2 ArrectorL l Ca T Na cyst1c bros1s pili TAsCdPbHg H I all39 I OO grazifeous cuticle cortex medulla Internal epithelial Hair bulb root sheath in fOIIicle External epithelial root sheath Glassy membrane Medulla Connective tissue root sheath Cortex Hair matrix Melanocyte Hair papilla an adipose tissue Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nail Root of matrix nail Proximal nail fold Free edge of nail nail fold Lunula Eponychium cuticle Eponychium cuticle Copyright 2006 Pearson Education lnc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body of nail Free edge of nail Hyponychium Phalanx bone of fingertip Fawn m Sam Stowans Talc Armamy a PhiIshtar 41h whim Copyright a 1993 Thu McEmw Hill Geminilies Int All right arm Burs Partial Full thickness thickness l I l I End gt rd Epidermis Dermis Hypadermis folllicle quot gland Totals Anterior and posterior head and neck 9 Anterior and posterior upper limbs 18 A Anterior and posterior n erior 4127 i trunk 18 414 quotquotquotk39 35 Perineum 1 i i9 oi 9 o Anterior and posterior lower limbs 36 1 000o A it Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sim Shamans Tali Armamy 3 Phrshbgy 41h adminI cmyrlml a 1998 The MeGr awIlill Butnannies Inc All rights Mama The Rule of Mines Head 9 Up er 7 lim 9 Head 15 Trunk Upper limb 18 9 front or back Trunk 15 Genitalia 1 39 front or back Lower limb 18 Genitalia 1 Lower limb a 1 71 Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma c Copyright 2006 Pearson Education Inc publishing as amin Cummings RECEPTORS Three Types Tactile Thermal PainPressure Nerves Associated with Hair Folicles Meissner s Corpuscles 2point discrimination just below epidermis gtilt gtxlt TactileMerkel s Discs light touch epidermis End Organs of Ruf niheavycontinuous tOuch dermis Pacinian Corpusclespressurevibration dermissubcutaneous Free Nerve Endingstemperature ne touch pain epidermis Anatomical class lslruclure llnenmpsulated Free dendrilic nerve endings of sensory neurons Modified free dendritic endings Merkel discs Roof hair plexuses Illustration Fundional classes ocrording to location L and stimulus type 5 L Exterocepfors interoceptors and proprioceptors S Nociceptors pain thermo receptors heat and cold possible mechanoreceptors pressure L Exteroceptors S Mechanoreceptors light pressure slowly adapting L Exteroceptors S Mechanoreceptors hair deflection rapidly adapting Body lomlion Most body tissues most dense in connective tissues liga ments tendons dermis joint capsules periostea and epithelia epidermis cornea mucosae and glands Basal layer of epidermis of skin In and surrounding hair follicles Encapsulated Meissner s corpuscles Pacinian corpuscles Fluttini s corpuscles Muscle spindles Golgi tendon organs Joint kinesthetic receptors L Exteroceptors S Mechanoreceptors light pressure discriminative touch vibration of low frequency rapidly adapting L Exteroceptors interoceptors and some proprioceptors S Mechanoreceptors deep pressure stretch vibration of high frequency rapidly adap ng L Exteroceptors and proprioceptors S Mechanoreceptors deep pressure and stretch slowly or nonadapting L Proprioceptors S Mechanoreceptors muscle stretch L Proprioceptors S Mechanoreceptors tendon stretch L Proprioceptors S Mechanoreceptors and nooioeptors Dermal papillae 0t hairless skin particularly nipples external genitalia fingertips soles of feet eyelids Subcutaneous tissue of the skin periostea mesentery tendons ligaments joint capsules most abundant on fingers soles of feet external genitalia nipples Deep in dermis hypodermis and joint capsules Skeletal muscles particularly those of the extremities Tendons Joint capsules of synovial joints
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