Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Human Anatomy & Physiology II BIOL 2022
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This 120 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Lucile Berge on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2022 at University of West Georgia taught by Joseph Huff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/230231/biol-2022-university-of-west-georgia in Biology at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Enlarged segment of digestive tract Stomach Major functions Food storage Mixing of food W gastric juice yielding chyme Other functions Chemical digestion of proteins Nonspecific immune defense Secretion of intrinsic factor 39 Cardia Cardiac sphincter 39 Fundus 39 Body 39 Pyloric region Antrum Canal Pylorus A Pyloric sphincter 39 Greater curvature 39 Lesser curvature What is the greater omentum attached to Stomach Histology Mucosa 7 Simple columnar epithelium surface mucous cells 7 Millions of gastric pits and gastric glands Submucosa Muscularis externa 7 3 layers instead of 2 Serosa Gastric Pits Branch into gastric glands Gastric glands secrete Gastric juice 23 Lday into the lumen Hormones into the plasma Gastric Glands Mucous nec1lt cells Secrete Act as stem cells Parietal cells Secrete HCl amp intn39nsic factor Chief cells Secrete pepsinogen Enteroendocn39ne cells Secrete honnones gastn39n Chief cells Parietal secrete cells secrete I I Begins protein digestion What other function does the HC I provide I Parietal cells secrete I l Intrinsic Factor Intrinsic factor binds Vitamin B12 l Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the distal small intestine Vitamin B12 plays a role in DNA synthesis particularly during erythropoiesis In response to foodstretchnerve signals enteroendocrine cells in fundic stomach secrete l I Gastrin into the plasma I I Gastrin travels thru the bloodstream to the body and pylorus I Secretory and muscular activity increase in the body and pylorus Stomach Danger 0 What about gastric juice could be dangerous to the stomach itself pH 2 in gnsiric Juice Mucus layer Gastric surface M I sure lets 0 How does the stomach quot u p protect itself capillary Muscularis externa 3 layers instead of 2 Inner oblique Middle circular Outer longitudinal bxtra layer allows the stomach to 0 What type of digestion is that Stomach Muscle Activity 2 basic waves of muscular contraction Mixing waves Peristaltic waves closed Stomach Absorption No nutrient absorption 0 Alcohol and some drugs Gastric Stimuli Smell sight taste Receptors info u the hypothalamus Increased parasymp signals stomach Via CN X ACh released on the stomach smooth muscle cells and gland cells increases their activity Gastric Stimuli Stretch e tides activate re exes that increase gastric secretory muscular activity 7 Long re ex 7 Short re ex Responsible for most of gastric juice production Initial stretch of duodenum by chyme causes it to release intestinal gastrin Gastrlc into the bloodstream Stimuli Intestinal gastrin acts on the stomach to increase its motor and secretory activity D39umlc nu m Iejunum r llcum Bihary quotea Gastric Card s Sphincter Inh1b1t10n Distention of duodenum causes it to secrete CCK and secretin which decrease gastric contractions and secretions Len Gaslwepvp olc arlery Dwdenum Pancreas Pancreallooduodenal artery Stress anxiety fear Via increased sympathetic activity 0 An increase in vagus nerve activit would cause gastric activity to 0 An increase in plasma gastrin would cause gastric activity to 0 An increase in plasma CCK would cause gastric activity to 0 An increase in plasma intestinal gastrin would cause gastric activity to What must happen to chyme as it enters the small intestine p H nutrients Esophagus I Jajunum quot lleum Dund enum r quota Long narrow and convoluted Small Intestine Extends from pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal junction 3 unequal divisions 2 main functions Ummlc um chunum 7 lleum 1st division Duodenum Mostly retroperitoneal Gall bladder About 12 long Receives Common II hJ me from duct Bile from Pancreatic juice from Pancreatic duct Site of digestion and Dundenum Pancreas absorption JCj unum Esnphagus 5 l Jajunum 2rld division llaum 8 long Duadnnurm Intraperitoneal Primary site of chemical digestion and absorption calm Appandi 39 Suspended by mesentery Esophagusn 12 long I Julunum El aunl Intraperitoneal Absorption of Vitamins and electrolytes Suspended by mesentery Ends at the ileocecal junctio Intestinal Wall 3 structures that maximize sulface area Circular folds Villi MicrOVilli Circular Folds Plicae circulares Big permanent folds ot the mucosa and submucosa Speed bumps 23 I 9 Q x l gt lt y quot 5 Fingerlike projections of th mucosa 0 Each contains blood capillaries and a lacteal Lined by simple columnar absorptive cells and goblet cells Fingerlike extensions of the plasma membranes of the simple columnar cells 0 Brush border Digestive enzymes are embedded Within More Histol Mucosa 7 Simple columnar epithelium w crypt goblet cells 7 Epithelial invaginations knov mum as intestinal g an Submumsa Submucosa Cimular 7 Unique in the duodenum and muscle gt ileum Longitudlnali muscle Serosa Muscularis extema amp 332 7 Standard21ayers Submuwsal payers Plexus patch 0 Serosa in thejejunum and ileum Adventitia in the duodenum Intestinal Glands Crypts of Lieberkuhn Absnr ive j cal s 0 Secrete 2 Lday of intestinal juice 63 7 Water 7 Mucus 7 Enzymes 7 Electrolytes Lamina propna Enteroendocrine glands secrete secretin IG and w J Wit555 CCK into the plasma 7 h 7 Endocrine Muscularis cells mucosae Submucosa nm Contains alkaline mucus glands in the Mm duodenum a 7 1 7 Why Cimular muscle v 39 a Longitudlnal r Contains Peyer s muscle i Semsa patches in the ileum 7 What are they 7 What do they do i Submucosal Payers Plexus patch Muscularis Externa Inner circular layer Outer longitudinal layer What type of muscle Small Intestine Movements Peristalsis Segmentation Segmental contractions are responsible for mixing No net forward movement b39unctIOns Carbohydrate metabolism Protein metabolism Lipid metabolism Production of bile Synthesis of plasma proteins Removal of druvs toxins etc from the bloodstream Phagocytosis of olddamaged RBCs Storage of Vitamins and minerals Just below the diaphragm in the upper right leer quadrant of the abdomen Divided into 4 lobes Right Left Caudate madam Ef flt Coronary ligament ANTEHUF VIEW OF LINER Faleiform ligament Nate the position of the gallbladder an the structures at the hilum le 0 Main digestive output is bile 7 Transferred to 0 Duodenum Gallbladder Ducts i 39 7 RampL Hepatic 39 Stomach 7 Common Hepatic 3 if V 7 Common bile Kp39an39cmagx 7 CYStic K 39 SUTTOUuuvu Uy a 41 vapSUIC CT septa extend into the liver Septa divide the liver into hexagons called liver lobules Each liver lobule has Central vein Hepatic cords Portal triad at each corner Portal arteriole portal H venule bile duct Sinusoidal capillaries linking the blood vessels at the corners to the central vein Bile canaliculi 2 types of blood vessels brin blood to the liver lobule at each corner Portal arteriole brings blood rich in Portal vein brings blood rich in Both empty into the liver sinusoids which carry the blood to the central vein Central veins take blood to the hepatic veins which empty into the IVC Toxin content will 0 Pathogen content will 0 Plasma protein content will What about the bile canaliculi Contains bile salts which emulsify fat r gl n Emulsification What does this do to the surface area 0 the fat Fat droplets coated with bile salts are suspended in water Why is that important 0 What heme byproduct does bile contain 0 Why would art inability to secrete bile result in grey white poop It would have too much and not enough Location quot 7 h i 39ESSm Gallbladd Common blle duct 0 Function 7 He tlc portgiaveln 0 Contains rugae Lumen lined by Simple columnar epithelium with microvilli Thick smooth muscle muscularis Serosa How does bile get in How does bile get out Fatty chyme causes duodenal cells to secrete cholecystckinin CCK causes Gallbladder muscularis t0 Gallbladder volume 0 What must CCK do to the hepatopahereatie sphincter 0 How will the bile a eet duodenal pH Pancreas Location Structure 7 Head body tail Exocrine functions 7 Enzyme secretion Endociinc functions uodenum 7 Hormone secretlon Hivslpart ol 5mquot mesune Pancreallc duct Common bile duct Sphlncter at 0am 0 Mostly acini clusters of enzymesecreting cells associated with small ducts Small ducts combine to ield lar39er and larger ducts and eventually the main pancreatic duct Pancreatic Juice Acini and duct cells secrete 15 Lday Acinar cells contribute enzymes such as Proteases Amylase Lipase Duct cells contribute a watery bicarbonaterich uid Why Digestive enzymes are made in pancreatic acini l Enzymes ow into small and then medium ducts Ducts add alkaline uid l Pancreatic juice flows into main pancreatic duct l Pancreatic juice flows into hepatopancreatic ampulla Pancreatic juice flows into the duodenum Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion Chyme causes dUOdell39cu cells to secrete CCK CCK causes acinar cells to secrete CCK causes the hepatopancre sphie v 0 What did CCK do to the gallbladder 0 What did CCK do to the stomach Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion The acidity of chyrne causes duodenal cells to secrete secretln Secretin causes pancreatic duct cells to Secretin causes tue hepatopancreatic sphincter to 0 What did secretih do to the stomach Islets of Langerhans Clusters of cells scattered amongst the acini Endocrine portion of the pancreas Contain Alpha cells Secrete glucagon in response to low plasma glucose Why Beta cells Secrete insulin in response to high plasma glucose Why Large Intestine Runs from ileocecal junction to anus Converts chyme into feces Absorbs excess water Expels feces Cecum Appendix Ascending colon Hepatic exure Transverse colon Splenic exure Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anal canal Tami hha39a Appendix ori ce What does the ileocecal valve d0 What does the appendix d0 Function of the rectum Composition and function of the anal sphincters Large Intestine Unique Features Teniae coli Haustra Peritoneal appendages Bacterial Flora Trillions Breakdown Vitamins How do they get there Feces 100 g per day 75 water and 25 solids Contain Dead bacteria Shed epithelial cells Fats proteins plant bers Bile pigments Colon Motility Segmentation Haustral contractions Mi39ratin39 motor comA lexes Gastrocolic re ex Defecation Take it in Where Break it down How Absorb the good stuff Such as Eliminate the rest Alimentary Canal Foodwaste tube Which organs 0 Accessory Organs Connected to and involved with the alimentary canal but don t carry Which organs Where Why Voluntary Why Deglutition Peristaltic contractions are responsible PCI39IStaISIS for forward movement Contraction Receiving segment Bolus Time zero Bolus moves forward Seconds later Direction of movement Where Why What happens to surface area Esophagus Third mular Wisdom math Use of enzymes to break down large molecules into their component parts Where Why Hydrolysis fat lipase o 0 glycerol fatty acid 0 O 0 O protease protein gtamlno aCIdS O O amylase starch gt sugars Where Why Into what Interstitial I Lumen of digestive tract gtl Wall uid Blood gt DIGESTION MOTILITV SECRETION ABSORPTION Defecation Simple squamous epithelium over loose CT Lines the abdominal wall Some organs are behind it 7 Kelroperltoneal 7 Examples Jammiqu witn Qnmlrobui lumbamm 1 WWW Jacamluw Wm Simple squamous epithelium over loose CT Wraps around most abdominal organs nucmw Dom Qnmlrobui lumbamm I WWWW smtu Jacamluw 1410 Double layer of peritoneum linking organs to the abdominal wall Function Dawn14 ng colon l Quudmuw lumbm nm PM majur Jaccndhvy um uwopvu1v39z Potential space btwn the Visceral anparietal peritoneum Contain slippery serous uid How many abdominal oruans does it contain 95 rumw Rum shun mum Mouth l Upenmg Vestibule Oral cavitJ 1 ml er Fauces Oropharynx Floor Roof Lateral walls Labial frenula Oral Mucosa Moist strati ed squamous epithelium Why Important skeletal muscles Orbicularis oris Buccinator Tongue Consists of bundles of skeletal muscle Mechanical digestion Deglutition Lingual frenulum Papillae Taste Lingual tonsil Intrinsic glands are found Wi the tongue cheeks lips and palate Always secreting Extrinsic glands are found outside the oral cavity Eating 13 Lday 3 pau s Parotid glands Submandibular glands Sublingual glands Connected to the oral cavity Via ducts 4 a133nm gland Tongue Taath 0mm sublingual gland Parmid duct Furenulum Massetar musale afm gwa if U ofmandibla Sublingua Em Submandibular gland duct Myhhvoid quot Subrnandibular gland Saliva Cleanses the mouth Dissolves and moistens food Contains enzymes 0 Contains immune proteins 9799 water Electrolytes Salivary amylase lgA Lysozyme Mucin John ate some delicious patties made from rice corn and potatoes He chewed them and savored every delicious bite Manny ate the same patties but simply swallowed them Whole 0 Whose blood Vlucose levels will riseu aster Why Regions 0 Function 0 Epithelial lining Hard palate Tongue 4gtw Basic Histology from Esophagus t0 Anal Canal Mucosa Submucosa vuu Muscularis externa C VP Serosa Cllcul r quotNSC B Lon quotll lnal 39 usce 39 Lymph Samsa Vessel Igulammi osaI IN V r M entarlc maquot V Suhmucosal Fey lam plexus patch Functions Secretes into GI tract lumen Secretes into the plasma Protection Absorption of nutrients water Vitamins ions etc into the blood and lymph Divided into 3 sublayers Epithelium Lamina piopria 2 I quotN 1 i l Muscularismucosae m crypt h I r j J z i l W Submuousa L I I I Mumsa J Ci f I E f A u k 45 an iduki WW7 1 m m gr 4 4 It I i 1 guru JAIME xiii h v n 7 Mus ularis Mauing Dense CT BV S LV S lymph nodules and nerves Clmul r mu e Submuwsa Lor udlnal uscle quot Lymph Sensac vessel lt 4 e Ig ulnmur nsaall a win we submucosal PegZ plexus patch amp 1 a 1 W I f 9 a m P 1 quotAQ 39 quotduk 1quot u m 7 7 What kind of muscle Muscularis Externa 0 Usually 2 layers lnner c1rcular Sphincters Peristalsis Clmul r quotNSC E Lon nu lnal 39 I Nerve plexus 5358 V wequot Submucosal Peygr plexus patch Outermom layer 01 intraperitoneal organs 0 Also known as the lem vmazmmmue mer lma Organs not lined by the peritoneum have an adventitia Not necessaly on all sides Dmcemliw 0on Qnult39lams lawlme Pm 7Wquot mummy mm SuuraMnnAlu 39 What s an adventitia Adventi tia I gt What are the advantages Muscularis term 7 39 What organs 39 Differences Runs from to Location 7 Btwn the 7 Behind the iThru Passes thru diaphragm Via esophageal hiatus function Esophagus Diaphrag Casmesaphageal jun 39 Slomach Gastroesophageal junction Esophagus 0 Cardiac ori ce Gastroesophageal or cardiac sphincter
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