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Principles of Biology II

by: Dr. Lucile Berge

Principles of Biology II BIOL 1108

Marketplace > University of West Georgia > Biology > BIOL 1108 > Principles of Biology II
Dr. Lucile Berge

GPA 3.87

Philip Heard

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Philip Heard
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Lucile Berge on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1108 at University of West Georgia taught by Philip Heard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/230233/biol-1108-university-of-west-georgia in Biology at University of West Georgia.


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Date Created: 10/27/15
Biology 1108 Exam 3 Review N W 5 U 0 Describe the differences between the oxygen content of water and air How does this affect respiration 0 Oxygen from the air diffuses into water when it comes into contact Thus there is less oxygen in water than in the air because in water the oxygen mixes How does oxygen content change with altitude 0 Oxygen content decreases What type of features do all gas exchange structures have in common Why is this feature important 0 moist 0 large enough to meet the O demands of the organism SAgtV o Organisms need large moist surface area in order to gain enough oxygen What organisms use skin as a respiratory structure Gills Lungs Are there any other methods of gas exchange 0 Skin marine atworm leeches sponges and some amphibians o Gills marine worms clams crayfish sea stars sh 0 Lungs spiders land snails amp vertebrates o Tracheae insects Describe the characteristics of lungs Gills o Lungs branched internal tubes restricted to one location 0 Gills featherlike extensions of body surface designed to extract 0 from water dense capillary bed found within gill filaments water is pulled in through mouth amp pumped out over gill lament Do all respiratory systems depend on blood to transport respiratory gasses Describe the systems that do not How do they transport respiratory gasses I Trachea internal tubes that oxygenate every cell in the body How do avian lungs and mammal lungs differ in structure and function what are the advantages of each type of structure 0 Avian Lungs o Mammal Lungs What roles do the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide play is the exchange of respiratory gasses o A gas will always diffuse from a region of higher partial pressure to a lower partial pressure Where the vocal cords located are and what roles do they play 0 The vocal cords are located in the Larynx The vocal cords trap inhaled particles and makes sound Describe the path of air into and out of your lungs o nasal cavity gt pharynx gt larynx gt trachea gt bronch igt bronchioles gt alveoli Why is smoking bad for you What are some of the effects that it has on the lungs o Exposes individual to over 4000 different chemicals Interferes with cleansing mechanism destroys cilia amp macrophages Causes lung cancer Causes emphysema alveoli rupture decreasing surface area for gas exchange amp heart disease 12 Describe the physical processes of inhalation and exhalation 13 What are the characteristics of the respiratory pigments that we studied How are they alike and how do they differ o Hemocyanin 02 binds reversibly to copper bluish blood 0 Hemoglobin Protein with 4 polypeptides 2 alpha and 2 Beta globin chains Can carry a maximum of 4 molecules of Oz 02 binds to iron heme portion Red Blood Cells 0 Myoglobin is the oxygenbinding molecule of muscle cells It is also an iron based ring structure It can bind one oxygen molecule It has a higher af nity for oxygen than hemoglobin does see slide 31 which means that it can pick up and hold oxygen at higher partial pressure values hemoglobin would release oxygen at these higher partial pressure values This provides a reserve of oxygen for when metabolic demands are high and blood ow is interrupted which is common due to contraction of blood vessels 14 Describe they oxygen binding dissociation curve What things can modify the curve to increase inhibit the release of oxygen from the blood ie identify the curve of a human fetus I Variable I Environment plays a role I pH will in uence Bohr effect I Decrease in pH will lower hemoglobin affinity allowing uptake for tissues in need of oxygen 15 How does pH affect oxygen dissociation I A decrease in pH will contribute to the acidity of blood The excess H ions bind to the hemoglobin thus lowing its ability to bind oxygen This allowing oxygen to be taken up by tissues or the tissues it is most needed in curve shifts to the right 16 How are oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human blood Identify relative amounts 0 Oxygen Transported on a heme molecule 4 to 1 ratio 0 Carbon Dioxide I 7 dissolved in plasma I 23 binds to globin portion of hemoglobin I 70 as bicarbonate ions in plasma 17 What are the parts of the CNSbrain are involved in respiration o Medulla center sets basic rhythm of breathing o Pons center smoothes out basic rhythm 18 Describe the differences between open and closed circulatory systems Describe some organisms that have each type Also include organisms that have no circulatory system I Open Circulatory System 0 hemolymph blood interstitial uid ows through openended blood vessels amp bathes organs directly heart powers circulation distributes materials throughout body found in invertebrates with many cell layers arthropods amp most mollusks o Vessel system will drain intercellular space and return hemolymph to the heart I Closed Circulatory System O o M is confined to blood vessels 0 heit powers circulation o distributes materials throughout body 0 found in some invertebrates earthworms cephalopods amp all vertebrates I No Circulatory System 0 Gastrovascular cavity I single opening I functions in extracellular digestion amp distribution of materials throughout body I restricted to invertebrates with few cell layers 0 Single celled organisms I Direct exchange with the environment I Restricted to aquatic or moist terrestrial environment I No organized circulatory system is needed Ex Euglena diatoms dinoflagellate and amoeba 19 Describe the evolution of the heart l4 chambers Give examples 0 1 Chamber 20 Describe the oxygen content of the various blood vessels I Arteries amp Arterioles High oxygen content Generally carries oxygenated blood away from the heart I Capillaries Generally high oxygen content site of gas exchange bw cells I Venules amp Veins Generally carry deoxygenated blood to the heart Special case is Pulmonary Vein 21 Describe the ow of blood through the heart pathway When is blood pressure at its highest Lowest What are diastole and systole 0 Blood pressure is highest in the aorta amp drops as blood travels through remaining vessels arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins vena cava Diastole Relaxation of the Heart Av valves open 4 chambers are lling with blood Systole Atria are relaxed Contraction of Ventricles to pump blood through the body Anterior Capillaries of vena cava lorelimbs Pulmonary pulmonary anery artery Capillaries Capillaries or ngm lung of lell lung Pulmonary vein algm alrlum night vemricl Len venlricle Posterior vena can Anna Capillaries or abdominal organs and hind lim 5 22 Describe the human heartbeat What causes a heart mumur What cause the heart sounds o lub a closing of atri oventricular valves occurs when ventricles contract 0 dup a closing of pulmonary and aortic valves occurs when ventricles relax 0 Heart Murmur is caused by a stenotic valve a valve that does not properly open 23 Describe the conduction system of the heart What roles do the SA node AV node etc play 0 SA node generates electrical signals sets tempo pacemakerLocated in upper Ratrium 0 AV node locatedin lower Ratrium Contributes to the Heartrate o Purkinje fibers located in wall of ventricles 0 SA node determines heart rate beatsminute 60minute 0 SA 39 39 quot 39 39 lwu er uf r J r slowsdown 39 W hrlll 0 Bundle of His is simply modi ed cardiac bers that do not contract but instead it 39 quot quotllllllll39lleAV 39 39 quot 39 39 24 Describe the cellular components of the blood Their abundance Where are they produced 0 Red Blood Cells 0 Plasma 0 White Blood Cells amp Platelets 25 What are the components of plasma 0 ater ions proteinsnutrients metabolic wastes 02 C02 amp hormones 26 Describe the process of blood clotting o Injury to lining of blood vessels exposes connective tissue platelets adhere o Platelet plug forms 0 Fibrin clot with trapped cells N l N 00 N O W O W W N W W m 4 W U Describe the different types of blood vessels How are they alike Different How do their differences allow them to serve a specific function 0 Arteries amp arterioles have 3 layersand are thick walled stretch easily 0 Veins amp Venules thin walled 3 layers have valves 0 Capillaries thin walled for diffusion of gases and nutrients Describe the differences in pressure in the different blood vessels Why are these differences important Arteries have the highest pressure because the carry blood the farthest Capillaries have low pressure because they are fragile and will burst if too much pressure is applied Veins amp venules The pressure is extremely low The veins push blood by muscles squeezing the vein What is the difference between a heart attack stroke and an embolism 0 Heart Attack Death of cardiac tissue due to a block in an artery that supplies the heart 0 Stroke Death of nervous tissue caused by a blocked artery that leads to the brain 0 Embolism Obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or foreign substance What are some adaptations of deep diving animals 0 Diving mammals conserve oxygen by reducing their heart rate swimming with little muscular effort and restricting blood supply to muscles What is the difference between an osmoregulator and osmoconformer Give examples of each Give examples of how the osmolarity of different organisms differ from their environment Give examples of organisms that excrete dilute urine Concentrated urine Why do these differences exist What is the sources of nitrogenous wastes What type of wastes are produced Give examples of the organisms and the wastes they produce Why are different types produced Ammonia a highly toxic water soluble b requires little ATP to excrete Urea c less toxic less water soluble d requires more ATP to excrete Uric acid 0 nontoxic water insoluble 0 requires most ATP to excrete Urine formation consists of three processes ltration reabsorption and secretion Describe what happens in each process and in which part of the nephron it happens


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