Principles of Biology I
Principles of Biology I BIOL 1107
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Macromolecules and the Origin of Life Molecules in living organisms pro reins carbohydra res lipids nucleic acids Mos r are polymers of smaller molecules called monomers Macromolecules polymers wi rh molecular weigh rs gtIOOO TABLE 3 The Building Blocks of Organisms MONOMER Amino acid Monosaccharide sugar Nucleotide COMPLEX POLYMER MACROMOLECULE Polypeptide protein Polysaccharide carbohydrate Nucleic acid LIFE 8e Table 31 Func39rionol groups groups of o roms wi rh specific chemical proper ries and consis ren r behavior i r confers Those proper ries when o r roched To large molecules Figure 31 Some Functional Groups Important to Living Systems Part 1 Functional group Hydroxyl LIFE 8e Figure 31 Part 1 Class of compounds Alcohols Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic acids Structural formula Er Example H H H c c I I H H Ethanol 39i H IZ H Acetaldehyde I Acetone T H ID H Acetic acid Film F 39 n 2007 Hmqu 39 in and W H Freeman amp Co Figure 31 Some Functional Groups Important to Living Systems Part 2 Functional Class of Structural group compounds formula Example l39 Amino Amines I H C 39 H Methylamine Phosphate Organic phosphates 3Phosphoglycerate H H I l Sulfh d I Thiols HO C C W ry El I lg FII I Mercaptoethanol 89 3 1 Part LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighth Edimm o 2007 Sinauer Associates inc and w H Freeman 5 our Isomers molecules wi rh The same chemical formula bu r a roms are arranged differenle Structural isomers differ in how Their a roms are joined Toge rher Isobutane Biochemical unify organisms can ob rain required macromolecules by ea ring o rher organisms One macromolecule can con rain many differen r func rional groups defermines shape and function Macromolecules Proteins 117 Nuclelc acids Carbohydrates Lipids Ions and small molecules 88 Figure 33 LIFE Eighth Fm39n39nn 2007 9 due A u mic Inc and w H Freeman 5 Col Polymers are formed in condensation reactions Monomers are joined by covalen r bonds A wo rer is removed also called dehydm an reac an Figure 34 Condensation and Hydrolysis of Polymers A A Condensation Monomer i39v LIFE 88 Figure 34 Part 1 LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 Sinauer Associates has and w H Freeman E Co Polymers are broken down in ro monomers in hydrolysis reoc rions hydro wafer lyss breok Figure 34 Condensation and Hydrolysis of Polymers B B Hydrolysis Hu lll l lH LIFE 86 Figure 34 Pa l1 2 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF mosz Eighth Edition to 2007 Slnauer Associates Incl and w H Freeman amp Col Functions of pro reins S rruc ruml suppor r Pro rec rion Transpor r Ca ralysis Defense Regula rion Movemen r Pr39o reins are made from 20 different amino acids monomeric uni rs Poypep a e chain single unbr39anched chain of amino acids The chains are folded in ro specific Three dimensional shapes Pr39o reins can consis r of more Than one Type of polypep ride chain The campus an of a pro rein rela rive amoun rs of each amino acid presen r The sequence of amino acids in The chain de rermines The pro rein s rruc rure and func rion Amino acids have car39boxyl and amino groups They funcTion as boTh acid and base Amino H Carboxyl group group The a carbon a rom is asymme rr39ical Amino acids exis r in Two isomeric for39ms Damino acids dexfro r39igh fquot Lamino acids evo lef r rhis form is found in organisms The side chains or R groups also have func rional groups Amino acids can be grouped based on side chains Amino acids with electrically charged hydrophilic side chains Positive Negative Q A Lysine LiS K H HgNt cca Histidine His Il Arginine Arg Fl Amino acids have both The general structure of all amino acids is the same threeletter and H HM COO39 I singleletter abbreviations but each has a different side chain I Aspartic acid Glutamic acid ASP Di Glu E H H H3NL COO H3N3 COO CH2 3H2 1 COO ng COO These hydrophylic amino acids attr39act ions of opposite charges Table 32 Part 2 Amino acids with polar but uncharged side chains Serine Threonine Asparagine Glutamine Tyrosine Ser 8 T hr T Asn N Gln Q WV Y Hydrophylic amino acids wi rh polar39 bu r uncharged side chains form hydrogen bonds Table 32 Part 3 Amino acids with nonpolar hydrophobic side chains Alanine lsoeucine Leucine Methionine Phenylalanine Tryptophan Ala A He 1 Met M Phe F Hydrophobic amino acids Valine Table 32 Part 4 Special cases Cysteine Glycine Prol i ne Cys 0 Sly G Pro P Figure 35 A Disulfide Bridge Cysteine molecules in polypeptide chain C Side chains N l H C CH2 SHSH CH21 C H l N C 2H I I I CH2 C 39H N C I l z o o o I 3 8e 35 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 SinauerAssociates Inc and w H Freeman 3 Co Amino acids bond Toge rher covalenle by peptide bonds To form The polypep ride chain Figure 36 Formation of Peptide Bonds Amino group Carboxyl group Peptide bond 39i if 39i C a T G E H lg N terminus C terminus H3N COO 86 36 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 Sinauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman amp Co A polypepTide chain is like a senTence The copiTol eTTer39 is The amino group of The firsT amino acid The N Termnus The period is The corboxyl group of The losT amino acid The 639 Termnus The primary structure of a pro rein is The sequence of amino acids The sequence de rermines secondary and Ter riary s rruc rure how The pro rein is folded The number of differen r pro reins Tha r can be made from 20 amino acids is enormous Figure 37 The Four Levels of Protein Structure A Pr39mary Structure Amino acid monomers Peptide bond LIFE 88 Figure 37 Part 1 LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 Sinauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman E Co Secondary structure a helix righ r honded coil resul ring from hydrogen bonding common in fibrous s rruc ruml proTeins D pleated sheet Two or more polypep ride chains are a gned Figure 37 The Four Levels of Protein Structure B C Secondary structure on Helix LIFE 86 Figure 37 Part 2 LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eighth Edilian e 2007 smauerAssociazes Inc and w H Freeman 5 Co Ter39riary structure Bending and folding resul rs in a macromolecule wi rh specific Three dimensional shape The ou rer surfaces presen r func rional groups Tha r can in rerac r wi rh o rher molecules Figure 37 The Four Levels of Protein Structure D E Tertiary structure 3 Pleated Quaternary structure Subunit 1 Subunit 2 Q r L Subunit 3 Subunit 4 LIFE 86 Figure 37 Part 3 LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eignm Editlon 2001 SinauerAssoclates Inc and w H Freeman 2 Co Ter riary s rruc rure is defermined by in remc rions of R groups Disulfide bonds Aggrega rion of hydrophobic side chains van der Waals forces Ionic bonds Hydrogen bonds A Spacefilling model B Stick model C Ribbon model on Helix B Pleated sheet a Helix B Pleated sheet l r2 39 1 39 4 5 A1 Ll 88 re 38 LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eighth Edition a 2007 Slnauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman 3 Ca Quaternary structure resul rs from The in remc rion of subum39fs by hydrophobic in remc rions van der Waals forces ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds Figure 39 Quaternary Structure of a Protein B 0L Subunits B Subunits LIFE 8e Fig u re 39 lIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighth Edilian 2007 Sinauer Associates mat and w H Freeman 5 Co The specific shape and func rional groups of a pro rein de rermines func rion and allows i r To bind non covalenle wi rh ano rher39 molecule The ligand Enzyme subs rra re reac rions chemical signaling an ribody ac rion e rc Figure 310 Noncovalent Interactions between Proteins and Other Molecules 88 3 1 0 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 Smauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman 2 Co Condi rions Tho r offec r secondary and Ter riory s rruc rure High Tempem rure pH changes High concen rm rions of polar molecules Denaturo on loss of 3 dimensionol s rruc rure and Thus func rion of The pro rein Figure 311 Denaturation Is the Loss of Tertiary Protein Structure and Function Denatured protein LIFE 8e Figure 3 1 1 FE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighm Edilian o 2007 SmauerAssociates me and w H Freeman 5 Co Carbohydrates molecules in which carbon is flanked by hydrogen and hydroxyl groups H C OH Energy source Carbon skae fans for many o rher molecules Monosacchar39ides simple sugars Disacchar39ides Two simple sugars linked by covalen r bonds Oligosacchar39ides Three To 20 monosaccharides Polysacchar39ides hundreds or Thousands of monosaccharides s rarch glycogen cellulose Cells use glucose monosaccharide as an energy source Exis rs as a s rraigh r chain or ring form Ring is more common if is more s rable Figure 313 Glucose From One Form to the Other Part 1 Aldehyde group H 2 OH HO 3 H 6 HzOH Hydroxyl group H 49 OH H 59 OH I H 6 OH I H StraightChain form Intermediate form LIFE 88 Figure 3 1 3 Part 1 LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 Smauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman 8 Co Figure 313 Glucose From One Form to the Other Part 2 Be 3 1 3 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eignm Eamon 2007 Smauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman amp Co Monosaccharides have differen r numbers of carbons Hexoses six carbons s rruc ruml isomers Pen39roses five carbons Figure 314 Monosaccharides Are Simple Sugars Part 1 Threecarbon sugar Glyceraldehyde Fivecarbon sugars 0H nu Ribose Deoxyribose 88 3 1 4 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 SmauerAssociates Inc and w H Freeman amp Co Disaccharides Two sugars Two monosaccharides joined by a gycoso ic linkage covalen r bond be rween 2 monosaccharides Figure 314 Monosaccharides Are Simple Sugars Part 2 Sixcarbon sugars ocMannose ocGalactose Fructose 88 3 1 4 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 SmauerAssociates Inc and w H Freeman 2 Co Figure 315 Disaccharides Are Formed by Glycosidic Linkages Part 1 oc14 glycosidic linkage CHQOH Formation of 0c linkage oc DGlucose BDGlucose OLDGIUCOSB BDGlucose Maltose LIFE 88 Figure 3 1 5 Part 1 LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 Smauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman 8 Co Figure 315 Disaccharides Are Formed by Glycosidic Linkages Part 3 x12 glycosidic linkage r H Formation of 0c linkage x D Glucose Fructose aD Glucose Fructose Sucrose LIFE 8e Figure 3 1 5 Part 3 LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 Sinauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman 3 Co Oligosacchar39ides may include o rher func rional groups Of ren covalenle bonded To pro reins and lipids on cell surfaces and ad as recogni rion signals ABO blood groups Polysaccharides are giant polymers of monosaccharides Starch storage of glucose in plants Glycogen storage of glucose in animals Cellulose very stable good for structural components Figure 316 Representative Polysaccharides A A Molecular structure Starch and glycogen Cellulose CHQOH H VVH o OH H chH H TH H H 0quotH H LIFE 86 Figure 3 1 6 Part 1 LIFE39 THE SCIENCE or BIOLOGY Eighth Edition a 2007 Smauer Assomaza Inc and w H Freeman 5 Ca Figure 317 Chemically Modified Carbohydrates C fH3 N acetyl group CHZOH H o I o 39 CHZOH H N H I H Chitin 88 3 1 7 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eignm Eamon 2007 Sinauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman amp Co Lipids are nonpolar hydrocarbons Fa rs and oils energy s rorage Phospholipids cell membranes Caro renoids S reroids Fa rs serve as insula rion in animals lipid nerve coa rings ac r as elec rrical insula rion oils and waxes repel wa rer preven r drying Fa rs and oils are Triglycerides simple lipids made of Three fa r ry acids and 1 glycerol Glycerol 3 OH groups an alcohol Fa r ry acid nonpolar hydrocarbon wi rh a polar carboxyl group carboxyl bonds wi rh hydroxyls of glycerol in an ester linkage Figure 318 Synthesis of a Triglyceride CH2 o Ester I linkage 0 0 0 0 0 0 I N 0 00 0 I I m O I M I an N9 I 539 M9 at x I I n O I m 0 I m 0 I m O I n O I N O O I M O I Igt O I m O I N I m O I m O NI 0 O I Ev I M O O I m I m 0 I m O O I N O I iv I m O 0 I N I O I 2 O I o O I m 0 I w I N O O I ix 0 I M O I N O I N I w 0 I N O I m 0 I m 0 O I N O I N O I m O I N I m 0 I m C I n O I m 0 I to O O I N O I to O I m O I m I N O I M O I m 0 I n O I N O I N O O I M I m O I N O Triglyceride O I o 8e 318 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Eighth Edition 2007 Slnauer Associates Inc and W H Freeman 8 Co Saturated fatty acids no double bonds between carbons it is saturated with hydrogen atoms Unsaturated fatty acids some double bonds in carbon chain monounsaturated one double bond polyunsaturated more than one Figure 319 Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids O I M 0 WOxygen o H dro en Carbon y 9 CH2 H20 CH2 C H2 CH2 c9 H20 CH2 0 CH2 CH2 c H20 CH2 CH 0 CH 2 O 2 H20 H CH2 Hg H2C CH2 CH2 l H20 Hi CH2 H HZC 0H CH3 I 2 CH2 Patmitic acid CH2 Linoleic acid CH2 CH 3 86 u re 3 1 9 LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Elgnm Edition 2007 Stnauer Associates Inc and w H Freeman 5 Co mgzttmag Eco E Ezvzlmsxuca Emgtmca mxv mflvaLEcmcz ma 0 33 mo EcE mgzttmag Soc B Uzomlem memm bmxucalb cg cm ma 0 93 33 cElt Phospholipids fo r ry acids bound To glycerol 1 phospho re group replaces one fo r ry acid Phospho re group is hydrophilic The head Toi ls are fo r ry ocid chains hydrophobic