Principles of Biology I
Principles of Biology I BIOL 1107
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Dr. Lucile Berge
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This 66 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Lucile Berge on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of West Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/230235/biol-1107-university-of-west-georgia in Biology at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
SPECIES AND THEIR FORMATION Chap rer39 23 A Wha r are Species a Morphological species concep r Linnaeus 17005 Based on similar39i ry of appearance Red winged blackbir39ds members of same species don39T always look alike e Biological species concep r Er39ns r Mayer39 1940 Based on r39epr39oduc rive incompo ribili ry Species are groups of oc ruolly or39 po ren riolly in rer39br39eeding no rur39ol populo rions which are reproduc vey I39soafea fr39om o rher39 such groups Problems Definition conno r be applied To fossils or39 osexuolly r39epr39oducinq or39qonisms The process of splitting one population into two populations That are reproductively isolated from one another no gene flow 2 The two populations diverge genetically but are still reproductively Daughter Increasing compatible Species A 1 A barrier is established incompatibility is established lnterbreeding population parent species D o r U 4 2 U 0 2 44 CD C D 5 Increasing 39 Daughter species B Specio rion can occur in Two main ways 1 Allopo rric geographic specio rion Reproduc rive isolo rion be rween subpopulo rions is resul r of o physica geographic bar39r39ier39 ates two popma ons Popur nviron ems on Gene flow mus r be m y in rerrup red long enough for reproduc rive barriers To arise Mos r common mode of specio rion Darwin39s finches 5951 5 as am mm m m adamu rm halvnsung and msan sands arg39 mm mm 6905mm msmvasm mm Owen 7W5 mam Liamwgmi sms mm ground nnch G rams Sma39l gmum mm G Wnnsay ANGESVOR wow quotom sum Sham mm gmund rm G dirkks Larga mm mm is mnuam Cacms man is scam2m and sum The mm was heaw m4 5 anaplad vm gmpmg am wveuchm Duds 1mm Imam vegsxam um PanSpas unmaskIS Smau nee mm Camelmm pawus man Hm Mnch LC nslllacw Mum mu u Damp41 Mangvnvc mm c lm obare Insect ems m mus ul mm rulers wry bauauset Ev as mm lyaa Woodpecksv ann and ms m mas and m L mam capmra them m mumquot wavs Wam er nnm Cermkisa owmsa Wanner mum can my ma mu seeds Smawmhed mugs cannm rush alga am mum may at mam smaH sand cam nches are rumba m c HE cactus mm and nmmm lha mud wmeumnm mm mm E we mu m w dmm quotas whss and quotmulva nch am quotsad mm m r and mm mm mm moss vm mmquot mm m wmmm man mm w mg m m m isan wood cram quota mm 101 was me mum mm was um mmms m cauluxe r5315 aquot Manes am Picturewinged Drosophila Number of species of picturewinged Drosophila found on an island 39 Kauai 6 Oldest island Oah u h K Maui Number of proposed founder events Youngest island Hawaii Pic rur ewinged flies Animation founder events lead to allopatric speciation 2 Sympa rr39ic Specia rion Reproduc rive isola rion occur39s wi rhou r forma rion of 0 pk ysca geographic barrier Requires some form of disr39up rive selec rion Common in plan rs rare in animals e SympaTr39ic specia rion in anmas r39esul rs from ecoloqical isolaTion subpopula rion exploiTs a resource noT used by The paren r popula rion Ex Rhagoef13pomonea flies in Hudson R V8 Iquot VOI Iey The difference in aiieie frequencies is associated with sympatric divergence Q Q 01 01 o 01 0 4gt TI 0 on on gt O C CD I Cquot CD i G i040 U Q U U G gt lt pp No no 39 40 41 42 43 Latitude 0N 4 Sympo rr39ic specio rion in plon rs involves golxploidx mul riple se rs of chromosomes Con result in formation of a new species in MO genera ons Au ropolyploidy possession of more Than 2 se rs of chromosomes derived from a single species Diploid Te rr oploid QCquot l l Acciden rol duplico rion of chromosomes Te rr39oploid amp diploid plon rs or39e r39epr39oduc rively isolo red Allopolxploidx possession of more Than 2 se rs of chromosomes derived from more Than one species hybr39idizo rion Ex Two Te rr39oploid hybrids of solsify r39esul red fr39om hybr39idizo rion be rween Thr39ee diploid por39en r species A tetraploid hybrid has an almost continuous range in an area around Spokane Washington 77 pratensis sasfy The range of tetraploid hybrids o is broader than that of diploid parental species A Washington Wha r preven rs members of 2 separa re species from producing viable fer rile hybrids Reproductive barriers C Reproduc rive Barriers Biological fac rors Tha r block gene flow be rween species 1 Prezygo ric Barriers preven r forma rion of a zygo re Habi ra r Isola rion Spa rial separa rion of ma ring si res Ex Lions Tigers Rhagoe s flies in Hudson River valley Temporal Isola rion Separ39a re species ma re a r differem Times day season year39 Ex Rhagoe s flies wes rer39n amp eas rer39n spo r red skunks Mechanical Isola rion Separ39a re species are anafomca y Incompa be Ex animals sizes amp shapes of r39epr39oduc rive organs plan rs differen r pollina ror39s Game ric Isola rion Game res of separ39a re species are chemcay 391 Incompa be Ex sponges Behavioral Isolo rion sexual selec rion Sepor39o re species r39ejec r or39 fail To recognize each o rher39 Ex fireflies bluefoo red boobies bower39bir39d species 2 Pos rzygo ric Barriers preven r hybrid zygo re from developing info a viable fer rile adul r Low Hybrid Zygo re Viabili ry Hybrid zygo res die or do no r ma rure normally Low Hybr39id Adul r Viability Hybrids sur39vive less well Than either parent 3 C I HYPOTHESIS Phlox drummondii has red flowers only where it is sympatric with pinkflowered P cuspidata r39 O r39 C e m e because having red flowers decreases interspecific hybridization evolution of more MHHOD 39 lll d l b l d d 39kfl dFld d effective prezygo fc 2 After the flowering season ends assess the genetic composition r39ePr39oduc rive bor39r39ier39S of quotE v 3915 RESULTS Of the seeds produced by pinkflowered P drummondii 38 were hybrids with P cuspdata Only 13 of the seeds produced by red flowered individuals were genetic hybrids fl 0 i 1amp2 hybrid rnatlngs l h loll What A l lopol39r39 i c Percent of seeds from Pink flowers Red flowers Phlox drummondii CO NCLUSlO N For Phlox drummondii having flowers that differ in color from those of P cuspidata reduces the amount of interspecific hybridization Hybrid Infertility Hybr39id is heal rhy bu r s rer39ile Ex mule zebr39ass Hybr39id zones may form if r39epr39oduc rive B bobma isola rion is C r 39 incomple re Hybr39id zones con rain recombinan r individuals r39esul ring from many genera rions of hybridiza rion 39 B variegata r Rates are highest in groups that already have a large of species are separated by physical barriers disperse poorly have specialized diets Joppeicids 1 species Tingids 1800 species Mirids 10000 species Isometopids 60 species Herbivores Predators on other insects ar39e animal pollina red plan rs are sexually dimorphic amp polygynous A Paradisaea minor ii 39 v1 E Adap rive Radia rion Process whereby a single ances rr39al species evolves info a wide var39ie ry of daugh rer39 species Tha r differ greatly in Their39 habi ra r form or39 behavior Common on islands amp following mass ex rinc rions Examples 9 14 species of Darwin39s finches o 28 species of Hawaiian silver39swor39ds MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION Chap rer39 22 A Unders randing Evolu rion 1 Charles Darwin 1831 received BA degree in Theology 1831 1836 Traveled around world on HMS Beage coec7 ea fhousana s of pan 7 5 cf am39maS 39 x I 39 V Nonh Fernandina 1844 wr39o re essay on The origin of species but didn39T publish 1858 Alfr39ed Wallace sen r his Theory of evolu rion To Dar39win 1859 The Orlyn of Species by Means of Nafur39a Seec on was published THE IiHIGIN 0F SPECIES ll t39 MEANS IF NATURAL SEILlZVI39lI39I i l llll L lill tg l l39lll III39 Pll r39l39li llllll lileiih IN THI L TilE j LH ll LIFE I41 l llfilllllih39 IMIWl39lN llquoti Darwin39s Thinking was influenced by The ideas of Charles Lyell EarTh is very old gt 6000 yrs a MalThus human popuIaTion Tends To increase fasTer Than resources ArTificial selecTion breeding of domesTicaTed planTs amp animals Evolu rion Descen r wi rh modificationquot Any gene ric Si resul ring pheno rypic change in a popula rionquot from genera rion ro genera rion Popula rion a group of in rerac ring individuals of The same species living in The same geographical area Darwin proposed Na rural OSelec rionquot as The mechanism of evolu rlon His reasoning is There is a sfrrug le for limi red resources amp only a frac rlon o The offspring survnve 4 Individuals possess heri rable gene lic varia rion sza x2x3 m1 xgxz me We now know Tha r na rural selec rion ac rs on The pheno rype which is derived from a gene rically variable gene pool X2X2 4 Individuals whose inher39iTed Tr39aiTs fiT Them besT To Their39 envir39onmenT are likely To leave more offspring 4 Dl39ffer39en a reproduc five success naTur39al selecTion leads To gr39adual changes in The populaTion over39 gener39aTions A consequence of evoluTion is ThaT organisms become adapfea To TheIr39 envnr39onmenT 2 Populo rion gene rics The s rudy of gene ric vorio rion and i rs causes wi rhin populo rions Allele frequencies measure The omoun r of gene ric vorio rion in The populo rion Geno rype frequencies show how The gene ric vorio rion is dis rribu red among i rs members In a populaTion of 500 The disTr39ibuTions of The 3 differenT genoTypes one AA 225 A0 175 co 100 a CalculaTe The observed genoType frequencies AA 225 500 045 A0 175 500 035 co 100 500 02 b CalculaTe The observedallele frequencies A 2 x 225 175 1000 0625 a 2 x 100 175 1000 0375 Hardy amp Weinberg developed on equo rion ro de rermine whe rher or no r o populo rion is evolving wi rh respec r To a por riculor locus P2 2m q2 1 p2 frequency of homozygous dominon r individ 2pq frequency of he rerozygous individ q2 frequency of homozygous recessive individ p frequency of The dominam aee q frequency of The recessive aee NOTE p q 1 If The allele ampor genoType frequencies remain The same from 1 generaTion To The nexT The populaTion is in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium NOT evolving If The allele ampor genoType frequencies change from 1 generaTion To The nexT The populaTion is EVOLVING Le r39s r39e rur39n To our39 previous example AA 225 A0 175 00 100 Observed geno rype frequencies AA 045 P2 A0 035 2m 00 02 q2 Observed allele frequencies A 0625 P a 0375 q Using The HW equo rion p2 2pq qZ who r would be expecfea geno rypic frequencies if This populo rion were in gene ric equilibrium Hi n r use observed allele frequencies for p and q AA p2 06252 039 A0 2pq 2 x 0625 x 0375 047 oo q2 03752 014 Is This populo rion in gene ric equilibrium NO Observed geno rypic frequencies differ from Those predicTed by HW rule H W example 1 In Slovakia one of every 20000 babies is born wi rh alkap ronur39ia Wha r is The frequency of The dominan r allele Wha r do we know p2 qu qZ p or39 q q2 120000 000005 Wha r do we wan r To find P How do we figure This ou r qu q so 1000005 0007 If q 0007 Then p 0993 p q 1 H W example 2 In a populo rion wi rh alleles B amp b The frequency of B is 07 De rermine The frequency of he rerozyqo res Who r do we know p 07 Who r do we won r To find qu How do we figure This ou r pr O7 rhenq 03 pq 1 Thus qu 2 x 07 x 03 042 Fr39om HW example 2 we know p 07 q 03 qu 042 Calcula re The frequency of homozygous domino77 individuals p2 072 049 Calcula re The frequency of homozygous recessive individuals q2 032 009 Check 049 042 009 1 x If There are 1000 individuals in This populo rion how many are 9 he rer39ozygous 042 x 1000 420 o homozygous dominon r 049 x 1000 490 o homozygous recessive 009 x 1000 90 Check 420 490 90 1000 For a popula rion To be in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium no r evolving 5 condi rions mus r exis r o Ex rremely large popula rion size 9 NO gene flow Transfer of alleles be rween popula rions via migra rion o NO mu ra rions 9 Random ma ring 9 NO na rural selec rion These condi rions are rarely if ever me r in na rure So how do we use HW values To de rer39mine whe rher39 a popula rion is evolving allele or39 geno rype frequencies change from 1 genera rion To nex r B Mechanisms of Evolu rionar39y Change are 1 Mu ra rion 2 Gene flow 3 gene ric dr39if r 4 Nonr39a ndom ma ring 5 Na rur39al selec rionquot 1 Generic muTaTion The origin of gene ric variation is mu ra rion Any change in an organism39s DNA is defined as mu ra rion They appear To be random wi rh r39espec r To The adap rive needs of organisms Mu ra rions can be harmful or39 neu rr39al depending on environmen ral changes Mu ra rions can r39es ror39e To popula rions alleles Tha r o rher39 evolu rionar39y processes have removed a The r39a res of gene ric mu ra rion ar39e sufficien r To cr39a re considerable gene ric variaTion because each of a large number39 of genes may mu ra re 4 Chromosomal r39ear39r39angemen rs may change many genes simul raneously 4 Popula rions of ren conTain large numbers of individuals 3 Ex If The pr39obabili ry of a poin r mu ra rion were 10399 per base pair39 generaTion Then in each human game re The DNA of which con rains 3 X 10399 base pairs There would be an average of 3 new poin r mu ra rions 3 X 10 X 10399 26ene Flow migr39a rion of individuals and movemen rs of game res be rween popula rions 3 These are common occurrences a Few populations are To rally isola red a New alleles are added To The gene pool of The populaTion or39 change gene frequencies of already pr39esen r 3 GeneTic drifT random changes in allele frequencies Can occur in small populaTions and produce large changes in allele frequencies from one generaTion To anoTher Ex AaX AafruiT flies To produce an F1 populaTion in which p q 05 genoType frequencies are 025 AA 050 Aa and 025 cm Randomly selecT 4 individuals 8 copies of The gene from The F1 generaTion populaTion To produce F2 generaTion The allele frequencies in This small sample populaTion may differ markedly from pq 05 If for example we happen To chance To draw 2AA homozygoTes and 2 heTerozygoTes A0 The allele frequencies in The sample will be p 075 6 ouT of 8 and q 025 2 ouT of 8 By replicaTing This experimenT 1000 Times one of The Two alleles will be missing enTirely from abouT 8 of The 1000 sample populaTions 4 GeneTic drifT 4 PopulaTions boTTlenecks Large populaTions passing Through period when smaller number of individuals survive a A populaTion forced Through a boTTleneck is likely To lose much of iTs geneTic variaTion 4 This can resulT from hunTing as experienced by prairie chickens during The expansion of The American WesT Here The red and yellow beans represenT 2 differenT alleles of a gene MosT of The sample Taken are red by chance 50 The new populaTion has a much higher frequency of red alleles Gene ric dr39if r founder effec r eA few pioneering individuals colonize a new region are unlikely To have all The alleles of The original popula rion same end r39esul r as bo r rleneck Examples of Species wi rh low gene ric var39ia rion A Prairie Chicken los r mos r of Their39 gene ric var39ia rion due To hun ring by pioneer39s B California Fan Palm los r gene ric var39ia rion due To r39educed range by man39s developmen r Primua sp pin type Primua Sp thrum type Kg An insect vis n a thrurn flower picks up pollen on 39 its head and body When it then visits a pin flower pollen is brushed off on the tall stigma pin flower An insect visiting a pin flower picks up pollen on its proboscis and head When it then visits a thrum flower it deposits pollen on the short stigma 5 NaTur39al SelecTion Allele frequencies in The populaTion change in a way ThaT adast individuals To The envir39onmenT ThaT influenced such r39epr39oducTive success Dar39win FiTness The r39epr39oducTive conTr39ibuTion of a phenoType To subsequenT gener39aTions r39elaTive To The conTr39ibuTions of oTher39 phenoTypes a NaTural selecTion can acT on characTers wiTh quanTiTaTive variaTion in any one of several differenT ways producing quiTe dif ferenT resuITs gt SfablI39zng seec on preserves The average characTerisTics of a populaTion by favoring average individuals gt Dir39ec ona seec on changes The characTerisTics of a populaTion by favoring individuals ThaT vary in one direcTion from The mean of The populaTion gt Dl39sr39up ve seec on changes The characTerisTics of a populaTion by favoring individuals ThaT vary in op osiTe direcTions from The mean of The popu aTion if o C J 7 73 M Q WM Va d D B m m m m y m m c w m m M m c w a m m n du m m 939 u t a m w w e w m m s e m m m y 7 n m m m V m a m a n a n a m w m m m m w m w d m m P 9 n n m w w ncU tquot m U m x m bud amp gtocm3Um Aocijm w ocmzww n w rU m s 4 w w m n H n e n w s n M a I n n 1 AU m o m m a m m m m a 5 N M m t e m t t m AU m w m m m m m m u m MU w mm s m m E a M w 5114 I s g m A o A s 9 a a m w a t n n n u e u u W m m m m m m m P 1 i c w r 1 w m m w s m a t i H a i h a P S D h D h ch m a D M 23 m wwwc 7 MC u AUJ 6 H o A M Q C A a EU 0M 9W nmw We WU Wt y H 1 a H 5 6 C J 1 11 u Hf l u R 3 5 H W V Em gU V a a WWW WN 01 V f 4U a Cu at 3H W W E mu C 1 j C G a 3 mm 1D AL U nLU 1 wk r EU 5W U n U S 1 3 R U r E U r U 7 A Lvu quotHQ VJ 4Q RY 69 nT m 2H T P 3 mu P Y m U U 1 au 3 6U G K Z VT an 3 3 MW PAW Q 443 nu 5 JQ Q 9 2L MD J FL FiL Stabilizing selection operates to maintain average characteristics ie size Babies born lighter or heavier than population mean die at higher rates than babies whose weights are close to the mean Stabi zi n9 Mean birth weighti selectIon reduces Optimum variations In birth welght populations but does not change the mean Atheuow lueOJed C 9 H E 3 Q o Q o H C a 8 a 0 Birth weight pounds British Columbia This population outside the evolutionary event range of Taricha has no TTX Washington resistance Warrenton OR Benton OR Oregon ldaho Bear Lake ID the newt Tarchar Nevada Level of TTX resistance in Thamnophis Willow Creek CA TTX resistance in the I I California population Callfomla evolved separately and earlier mm Largebilled birds can crack hard seeds 16 Birds with bills of intermediate sizes 14 Width of lower bill cannot Lise either kind of seed efficiently and survive poorly mp3 0 5932 m o m d ex me w w bw d n M0 by wm 9 ad mm Se Q m Aw it ill 1 nlu 6 MW Will M J 3 iii n P Wle v ml ng AU m M 7 Q NM 4 U LU J JU 7llk L H m 1 i We C c a H u it P C 0 one We d l Hi Q u v H fa Vi WU Wu 6 Q mu WU 9 mg m V HT IN M ncU him quotNH J Wu ml M ii 4 6 CU nJ Hi in fl 1 AI ri t Ji C WV Wired HAL Q bf My m n am l h H RU U i 70k Me lw H l l Cl 7 Tb i V WW 0 n 1 JiU ll it Mimi C Mb 3 if c g mHe y n U 9 M iHi K W S 019 all more gQ M WT pedalQ W NH n Pl P MU AU 1 A 0 JH p0 QM H r h nnU C M W M rile H JW Wu P a Q C W ml at Q W a J a e f lira 7 kU U C F m A Cw C W f ml 8 Q Q 1W Sexual selecTion is a special Type of naTural selecTion ThaT acTs on characTerisTics ThaT deTermine reproducTive success The Longer The Tail The beTTer The male Male WldOWbll dS Wl l h shorTened Expgkmgm Tails defended Their display siTes successfully buT aTTracTed fewer HYPOTHESIS Sexual selection is responsible forthe evolution of long tails in African longtailed widowbirds METHOD females Thus faThered fewer if nesTs or eggs Than did males wiTh RESULTS normal and lengThened Tails One drawback To The long Tail is ThaT in impairs The birds abiliTy To fly E 5 a a 8 c 395 e 9 Average nu Anlficlally Normal ConTrol Artificially lengthened sho CONCLUSION Sexual selection in widowbirds favors long tails Provide carotenolds ln drinking water for experimental but not for control males Challenge all males immunologically and measure response FlESULTS Experimental males responded more strongly to the lmmunologloal challenge They also developed bnghter bllls than control males Strong ngn a 9 C 9 O c a response spgouelwea D LlOllEJJUGOUOO Taenlopyg a guttata Low Control Carotenotdi dlet supplemented diet experlmental a Maintaining Genetic Variation within Populations Disadvantages of sex s Sexual recombi nation breaks up adaptive combinations of genes is Sex reduces the rate at which females pass genes on to their offspring e Dividing offspring into separate genders greatly reduces the over all reproductive rate So why sexual reproduction HypoTheses for The exisTence of sex 1 Sexual recombinaTion faciliTaTes repair of damaged DNA because breaks and oTher errors in DNA on one chromosome can be repaired by copying The inTacT sequence IT permiTs The eliminaTion of deleTerious muTaTions The greaT varieTy of geneTic combinaTions creaTed each generaTion by sexual recombinaTion may be especially valuable as a deferISe againsT paThogens and parasiTes Natural selection often preserves variation as a polymorphism A polymorphism may be maintained when the fitness of a genotype or genotype depends on its frequency in a population This phenomenon is known as frequency a epena enf seec on Flightmouthedquot Perssodus Leftmouthed Perissodus attack prey from the left side attack prey from the right side Environmental variation favors genetic variation Heterozygous mole CoI39as butterflies can fly farther than homozygous moles under39 a broader range of temperatures thus more successful in inseminating females EXPERIMENT RESULTS For both species the proportion of heterozygous males that mated successfully was higher than the proportion of all males seeking females flying Colias eurytheme Colias philodice 80 72 7 9 as 6 Em m 30 can 90 NS 0C La lt90 390 3 DO IO 0 m v Flying Mating Flying Mating successfully successfully CONCLUSION Heterozygous Colias males have a mating advantage over homozygous males Geographic Varia rion in a Defensive Chemical The frequency of cyanideproducing individuals in each subpopula rion of whi re clover Trfofum rape75 in Europe depends on The win r Th 39 39 e nvi ro nme n r Genotypes performing well quot over a broad range of femperafures In The case of q Dd clover The frequency of n quot cyanide producing individuals 39l increases gradually from norfh fo soufh and from easf fo wesf Poisonous planfs make up a large porfion of clover subpopulafions only in areas where winfers are mild Weindicatespmpomonof I planls not producing cyanide Red indicates proportion of plants producing cyanide Constrain rs on Evolu rion 1 Developmen ral processes constrain evolu rion Trade offs cons rr39ain evolu rion Shor39T Ter39m and long Term evolu rionar39y ou rcomes some rimes differ DevelopmenTol process consTr39oin evoluTion Two soluTions To a single problem STingr39oys whose oncesTor39s wer39e dor39sovenTr39olly floTTened lie on Their39 bellies Their39 bodies are symmeTricol around The dorsolbockbone Flounders whose oncesTor39s wer39e loTer39olly floTTened lie on Their39 sides The backbone is oT The r39ighT Their39 eyes migr39oTe during developmenT so ThaT boTh eyes are on The same side of The body B BotMs lunatus
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