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Chapter 8 and 9 Notes

by: Raven Hamilton

Chapter 8 and 9 Notes ASTR-1010-01

Marketplace > Clayton State University > Art > ASTR-1010-01 > Chapter 8 and 9 Notes
Raven Hamilton
Clayton State
GPA 3.73

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About this Document

Notes briefly covering chapter 8 and the majority of chapter 9.
Solar System Astronomy
Bram Boroson
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR-1010-01 at Clayton State University taught by Bram Boroson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Solar System Astronomy in Art at Clayton State University.


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Date Created: 03/25/16
Chapter 8 Notes  Radioactive dating is a line of evidence for calculating the origin of the solar system and the age of the moon (4.6 billion years).  There is a radioactive form of Potassium-40 that, over time, will become Argon-40. Argon is a noble gas. After a period of 1.25 billion years, half of the original amount of Potassium-40 will be converted into Argon-40 (referred to as a half-life).  Half-life- the time for half the nuclei in a substance to decay. Chapter 9 Notes  Seismic waves- seismic from the Greek word for “shake”. P-waves and S-waves are two kinds of seismic waves that provides clues about the inside of Earth.  P-waves move matter back and forth.  S-waves shake matter side to side.  P-waves (pressure waves) go through Earth’s core, but S waves do not. This allows us to come to the conclusion that Earth’s core is partly liquid.  Core- highest density material that primarily consist of metals such as nickel and iron  Mantle- rocky material of moderate density that is mostly minerals like silicon and oxygen.  Core- where we reside; lowest density rock such as granite and basalt.  Lithosphere- the outer layer of cool, rigid rock on a planet that “floats” on the warmer rock beneath.  Differentiation- high density material sinks to the core of the Earth, while lower density material will rise to the surface  Some of the heating of the Earth is caused by differentiation, but the most important heat source today would be radioactive decay.  Heat causes- accretion, differentiation, and radioactivity.  Convection- transports heat as hot material rises and cool material falls.  Conduction- transfers heat from hot material to cool material by touch.  Radiation- send energy into space.  The magnetic field of the Earth is important because it protects us from the Sun’s solar winds.  Criteria for a magnetic field:  molten, electrically conducting interior  convection  moderately rapid rotation  Heat escapes from a planet’s surface into space by thermal radiation. Planets radiate almost entirely in the wavelength range of the infared.  Motion of charged particles are what create magnetic fields.  Requirements for a planet to have a magnetic field: molten, electrically conducting interior, convection, and a rapid rotation.  Craters visible on the Moon are impact craters, originating from the impact of another object colliding with the Moon.  Volcanoes emit gases that can become part of a planet’s atmosphere and explains the presence of gases in our own atmosphere.  Tectonics- builds up to create mountains, or pulls apart to produce valleys.  Lunar Maria- darker area of the moon, caused by cooling of lava flow.  During the formation of the Lunar Maria, the early surface was covered with craters, there was a large impact that weakened the crust of the Moon, and heat built up and allowed lava to spill on the surface and as it cooled those areas became darker.  Olympus Mons is the largest volcano in the solar system.


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