Principles of Biology II Lab
Principles of Biology II Lab BIOL 1108L
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Dr. Lucile Berge
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Lucile Berge on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1108L at University of West Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/230237/biol-1108l-university-of-west-georgia in Biology at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Water Potential 1 Water potential 1 is a measure of water s potential to do work In order to do work an object must be able to apply enough force to another object to cause displacement In order for water to displace another object water must be moving The largest water potential any volume of water can have if only standard atmospheric pressure is being applied to that volume of water is de ned as 0 This is the water potential for distilled water Distilled water has the greatest potential to move and thus displace another object As solute is added to distilled water with no outside pressure being applied to it the water potential of that solution drops But what does it mean to say that the water potential of a solution drops It means that the water in that solution is less likely to do work in other words it is less likely to move Why is that Well as solute is added the chances become less and less that a concentration gradient can be set up between that solution and a second solution that will favor the movement of water out of the initial solution In the example to the left solute was added to the solution on the left side of the membrane This decreased the Diffusion across a barrier Semipermeable membrane chances that water would move out of 39 If i the solution to the left of the a a membrane and into a solution to the o a I right of the membrane This means 39 that the water on the left side of the Water moves 0 I towards high a a I 0 a membrane has less potent1al to do We mmemmmn 0 0 9 work than the water on the right side 4 What does this mean in terms of water High Low potential It means that the solution to Equal concentrations Concentration oi solute the le of the membrane has a more of solute Dynamic equilibrium negative water potential than the solution to the right of the membrane Therefore water will ow from the right side of t e membrane to the le Water always moves towards a more negative water potential Let s take a look at another example The solute potential of a 01 M solution of distilled water and sucrose at 20 C at standard atmospheric pressure is 023 Ifwe continue adding sucrose to the solution until it reaches a concentration of 075 M at 20 C at standard atmospheric pressure the solute potential continues to drop to a value of l87 Which solution contains water that is less likely to do work The one that has a higher concentration of solute and a lower concentration of water Think about it if we separated a 01M solution of sucrose and a 075M solution of sucrose with a selectively permeable membrane which direction would the water move Of course it would move from the 01M solution into the 075M solution In the process it would be doing work Remember water always moves from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential Pos ab 8 Questions Name PLANT ANATOMY Section Dale PRIMARY GROWTH A 5 1 Identify the following terminal bud structures Apical meristem Bud primordial E Developing vascular tissue E Ground meristem amp Leaf primordia 9 L Procambium STEMS 2 What are the primary functions of stems i SOYRTVJV 9 3 M00113 WW vae v 9quot Subsr3 3 Draw and label the cs of a eudicot stem and a monocot stem Monocot Stem Eudicot Stem ROOTS 4 Draw and label the anatomy of an herbaceous root Herbaceous Eudicot Root Herbaceous Monocot Root 17 5 What is the function of root hairs W SgtPM 6 Do root hairs cover the entire root If not to which portion of the root are they restricted MO Rm 993 LEAVES 7 Match the structures below with the correct letter on the diagram E Air space 3 Bundle sheath cell 7 Cuticle b Guard cell V Lower epidermis 3 Palisade mesophyll F Phloem A Spongy mesophyll c Stomata 55 Upper epidermis g Xylem 8 Correlate structure with function l Transports water A Cuticle E Transports food B Guard cells A Waxy layer that decreases water loss C Epidermis L Protects D Palisade mesophyll E Site of photosynthesis cells E Phloem arranged in neat rows F Spongy mesophyll Cells arranged randomly arrangement G Stomata allows for air circulation cells carry on H Xylem photosynthesis Allows carbon dioxide to enter leaf and oxygen and water vapor to exit Pb Open and close the stomata 18 9 Draw and label the parts of a simple leaf and a compound leaf Simple Leaf Compound leaf 10 Draw small sections of the types of leaf margins Entire Lobed Serrate dentate or crenate 11 Record the comparative observations of the twigs and leaves Species Name Blade Type Venation Margin 2 12 Draw the venation pattern for the observed monocot leaf weka 13 What is the function of the cuticle DEER ewgt 19 Water Potential Osmosis amp Plant cells Plants amp water potential gt Plants can use the potential energy in water to perform work gt Tomato plant regains turgor pressure cell pushes against wall due to uptake of water Plants amp water potential gt The combined effects of 1 solute concentration 2 physical pressure cell wall can be measured as Water Potential T gtT psi gtT is measured in megapascals MPa gt1 Mpa 10 atmospheres of pressure Calculating Water Potential gt Iquot 11 113 Or Water pressure solute Potential potential potential Solute Potential 1 S gt Solute potential is also called the osmotic potential because solutes affect the direction of osmosis gt P S of any solution at atmospheric pressure is always negative why gt Answer less free water molecules to do work Solute Potential 1 S amp Solutes water Ammonia dissolves in Waler J molecules reducmg 5 J I the number of free rahi water J J water molecules 9 JV lowers waters I 0 abIIIty to do work lt r 7 it u mnm and V I W3 Bl ml LlrE39 C Ophardt c 2003 Pressure Potential I P gt I P is the physical pressure on a solution gt ij can be negative 9 transpiration in the xylem tissue of a plant water tension gt IJP can be positive 9 water in living plant cells is under positive pressure turgid Standard for measuring 1 gt Pure water is the standard gt Pure water in an open container has a water potential of zero at one atmosphere of pressure Water Potential an artificial model gt a addition of a solutes on right side M M reduces water salutlun potential PS 023 gt Water flows from hypo hyper gt Or from hi LP on left n to lo T on right 3 4123 it 391 MPH Ill 123 MHz Water Potential an artificial model b C w EII23 v wUMPa w amps 1I0MPa 1p 2 007MPa gt b adding 023 pressure with plunger 9 no net flow of water gt c applying 030 pressure increases water potential solution now has P of 007 gt Water moves right to left Water Potential an artificial model gt cl negative d 1 pressure or tension using plunger decreases water potential on the left gt Water moves from right to left I 03 MP3 I E l123 Water relations in plant cells gt b Flaccid cell in pure water 9 Water potential is into cell cell becomes turgid Water relations in plant cells gt a Flaccid cell placed in hypertonic solution 9Water potential is out of cell 9 plasmolysis Calculating Solute potential gt Need solute concentration gt Use the equation 11 S iCRT i particles molecule makes in water C Molar concentration R pressure constant 00831 liter bar mob K T temperature in degrees Kelvin 273 C Solve for water potential literal equation gt Knowing solute potential water potential can be calculated by inserting values into the water potential equa on I I P PS In an open container TP 0