Survey of Chemistry I
Survey of Chemistry I CHEM 1151K
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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeff Gleichner on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1151K at University of West Georgia taught by Lucille Garmon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/230255/chem-1151k-university-of-west-georgia in Chemistry at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements Matter and Properties Three states of matter state m m Solid Very close de nite de nite together Liquid Fairly close de nite Takes the together shape of container Gas Very far apart Fills container Takes the shape of container Properties of Matter characteristics of matter Physical vs Chemical Physical Property 0 Physical property a trait that is observed Without changing identity color shape weight mass volume state Physical change produces a difference in the appearance of a substance Without causing any change in its composition or identity conversion from one state to another Chemical Property 0 Chemical property trait that can be observed only through a chemical change reactivity toxicity stability Chemical reaction chemical change a process of rearranging replacing or adding atoms to produce new substances neutralization of acid with a base Acid Base gt Salt Water Chemical or Physical Soaking pasta in water Chemical 0 Boiling Pasta in water till the pasta burns or Physical Matter Pure substance Mixture Element Compound Homogeneous Heterogeneous Example sodium Example Example ir Example oil and water hydrogen salt water salt in water salt and pepper Mixture a combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance retains its own identity Homogeneous mixture uniform composition Heterogeneous mixture nonuniform composition Matter Pure substance Mixture Element Compound Homogeneous Heterogeneous Example sodium Example Example ir Example oil and water hydrogen salt water salt in water salt and pepper Pure substance all particles have same composition and properties Compound 7 combination of 2 or more elements Where all molecules in the sample are identical Element a pure substance that is in its simplest form Elements Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes Elements are the building blocks of matter There are 113 elements known today Symbols consist of 1 or 2 letters Only the rst letter in a symbol is capitalized Examples lLetter Symbols 2Letter Symbols carbon C carbon Co cobalt 39 39 N nitrogen Ca calcium F uorine Al aluminum 0 oxygen Mg magnesium Elements in the Body Carbon oxygen and hydrogen are the most abundant elements in the human body hale 21 Elemems Essen In lieMl Amaun In a Elemenl Symbel allkg Person wnere Found Oxygm o 39 kg Wm cubohydmzs lals pmleins c ll kg Carbohydnles lee pm ins Hydmgen H 5 kg Water calbnhy his pmteins Nilmga N 2 kg 39 n Calrlllm Ca 1 kg Bums leem Phosphorus lgt 05 kg Bu 5 laelh DNA RNA Potassium K 02 kg lllslde cells imponzm m eunduelim of new impulses nllm s 02 kg Sm amino emu Na UVI kg Body Hulda llmponenl m lltrve wnducnull and nld balance Magnumn Mg 0 kg lnxldc eelln Inlplmanl in enzyme runcn on urin Cl u l kg Olmldx 0 cell majur clmmlym Symbols to Memorize Memorize the symbols to common elements Ch 2 p55 table 22 Most are easy and logical C for Carbon N for Nitrogen 10 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg Mercury is Heavy gunk 11 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg Kick pot ium 12 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg Tungsten lament in a light bulb l3 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg Lead Plumbing was used originally That s Where the world plumber originates Latin word Plumbum l4 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg A u hey you give me back my gold 15 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg Say Nah to too much sodium 16 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg A tin roof gets hot in the Sun 17 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg The iron man triathlon is an amazing Feat Or think of Ferric oxide rusted iron 18 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg A bank robber driving away says C u see you copper 19 Ways to Remember Some symbols are more dif cult HgKWPbAuNaSnFeCuAg Argentina was named after argenturn because it produces a lot of silver Did you watch Evita 20 Periodic Table MendeleeV and Meyer Groups run vertical Members have similar chemical and physical properties Group 1A Alkali Metals Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7A Halogens Group SA Noble Gases The representative elements have group numbers of 1A 8A The transition elements use the letter Periods run horizontally Identi ed by a number such as l 2 3 21 Periodic Table of Elements Gmup 4 1A 39 ML quotummr 2 1a 1w w 15 17 1 Ema 39i 2A 2 BE 7 t 39 m I TranSItiDn elements 1 3 quotha a a 5 E 1 a a m 11 12 M 33 an as aa 719 aa m an m 39 a a I m a 4 ca Hm Fa En Mi M H In 5 5r 397 H 5 B in H rFr an ilJb HhHE JELA 27 an a A i an an A an TheEEdTMableEmges elements according to similar properties and by increasing atomic number 22 Metals and Nonmetals I Metals shiny ductile malleable and good conductors I Metalloids have properties of both metals and nonmetals I Nonmetals dull brittle poor conductors and good insulators Table 25 Some Characteristics of a Metal a Metalloid and athjonmetal Silver Metal Shiny Extremely dluctile Can be hammered into sheets malleable Good conductor of heat and electricity Used in coins jewelry tableware Density llO5 gmL Melting point 962 C Antim y Sb Metalloid Bluegrey shiny Brittle Shatters when hammered Poor conductor of heat and electricity Used to harden lead color glass and plastics Density 67 gmL Melting point 630 C Sulfur Nonmetal Dull yellow Brittle Shatters when hammered Poor conductor good insulator Used in gunpowder rubber fungicides Density 21 glmL Melting point 113 C Tlmbenake General Organic Q Inc Dubllsnlng as Benlsmln Cummmgs 23 Simplest form of an Element The Atom is the smallest form that still holds the element s identity Dalton s Theories All matter is made up of atoms All atoms of one identity are alike but different from atoms of other identities Atoms can combine to make compounds These compounds are uniform for one identity You cannot create or destroy matter 24 Parts of the Atom Atoms are made up of subatomic particles Table 27 Partlcles in the Alum Subatomic Symbol Electrical Particle Charge Proton p or p 1 Nemmn n or n 0 Eleclmn e 1 Massing Atoms The mass of an atom is given in Atomic Mass Units amu Table 27 Particles in the Atom Subatomic Symbol Electrical Approximate Location Particle Charge Mass amu in tom Proton p or p l l Nucleus Neutron n or nquot 0 1 Nucleus Electron e39 1 00005 Mme Outside nucleus Sealing up The mole allows us to scale up our units 6022 X 1023 Avogadro s number The mass of 1 mole of atoms in grams the amu of one atom WHAT 1 atom ofC 12 amu lmoleofCl2g gt 1 amu l gmol 27 Structure of an Atom Rutherford experiment 28 Structure of an Atom Rutherford experiment Concluded that majority of mass was at the center of an atom 29 A Closer Look at the Nucleus Protons Preside in the nucleus Give elements their identity The number of protons is the Atomic number Neutrons Also preside in nucleus Adds mass to atoms 30 Isotopes Element has a set number of protons but neutron numbers can vary Atoms of the same element with a different atomic mass is called an isotope Isotope notation I I Y Symbol W Atomic mass X Atomic number Z Charge 31 Atomic Mass Calculation Atomic Mass is a weighted averages of all isotopes present Relative Mass of isotope Abundance 9976 15995 amu 038 16999 amu 2 17999 amu 32 Information Given in the Periodic Table for Each Individual Element Silver Ag Atomic number Name of the element sometimes included Elemental Symbol Atomic mass 33 Mass Number The mass number atomic mass gives the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Mass number protons neutrons Tabla 25 Campnsi un of Same Mums of Di Erent Elements Atomic Mass Number of Number of Number of Ellement Sym but Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons Hydmgen H 1 1 1 CI 1 Nitrogen N 7 14 7 7 7 Chlorine Cl 17 37 17 20 17 Iron Fe 26 56 26 3O 26 Gold Au 79 N97 39 113 79 Tlmberlake General Organic and Bromng Cha39m39srry Copyright Pearson Education Inc publlshlng as Benlamln Cummings 34 12 5 B Protons Neutrons 40 zoca Protons Neutrons Sample Problems 32 168 ng 13 6C 14 7N 35 Electrons in an Atom Exist in a cloud around the nucleus If an atom is neutral the proton count and electron count are the same Y Symbol W Atomic mass X Atomic number Z Charge 36 Sample Problems 32 139 152 B 16 S Protons Neutrons Electrons 33Ca239 ing Protons Neutrons Electrons Electrons in an Atom Exist in a Cloud around the nucleus The more energy they have the further they travel l 5 38 What are Energy Shells Really They are a probability distribution 39 Energy Levels Each shell has an assigned quantum number 11 Each level has a maximum capacity Levels are quantized The higher the level the less difference in energy Electrons can gain or lose energy by a quantum leap 40 Niels Bohr the Bohr Atom Model M third energy level L second El 1 energy level x BC m K rst energy level Nucleus a Emir y 9 39 393 absorbed 1 x Tl 3 Energy released I W c Electrons exist in xed energy levels Quantization of energy surrounding the nucleus Promotion of electron occurs as it absorbs energy Excited State Energy is released as the electron travels back to lower levels Relaxation 41 Periodic Trends Atomic Radius Increases with more and higher energy electrons Electronegativity Sorne elements like to hold on tighter to electrons 42 Periodic Trends Valence electrons Give elements their personality Found in the outermost shell The group number number of valence e 43 Survey of Chemistry Chem 1 151K Chapter 1 Measurements Measurement in Chemistry Data and Units Data individual result of a single measurement or observation mass of a sample temperature of a sample Units the basic quantity of a measurement A measurement is useless Without its units ENGLISH AND METRIC UNITS English system a collection of measures accumulated throughout English history no systematic correlation between measurements 1 gal 4 quarts 8 pints 1 foot 12 inches 0 Metric System composed of a set of units that are related to each other decimally Units organized by factors of ten 1 kg 1000 g 1000000 mg Types of Measurement Length the distance between two points long distances are measured in km distances between atoms are measured in nm 1 nm 10399 m inni ll lum1umarlinmpm nnlnn
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